Version 1.31 (07/01-2015)

Welcome to my fracking-resources page.
You will here find a great number of links (271) to pages and pdf-files divided in different categories. One of them is ("Earthquakes"), talks about the relationship between the extraction unconventional gas and earthquakes. It is not the fracking itself which is the cause, but the injection of wastewater into the ground. If you like to know more about this, here are some links:
Basic Information about Injection Wells, Injection Wells: The Poison Beneath Us, Wastewater Injection Wells: The Trillion-Gallon Loophole and As Fracking Proliferates, So Do Wastewater Wells

- Earthquakes
This kind of extraction produce a lot of wastewater, and one method to get rid of it, is to inject it into the ground.
Can this cause additional earthquakes?

- Homevalue
Links to pages and pdf showing how it can affect the value of you home and property!

- Insurance
What about your insurance? Would you have to pay more or would your be "fracked"!
Would your insurance-company refuse to pay if something happened?

- Chemicals
What kind of chemicalsis used for the fracking?

- Health
The fracking and its effect on the health.
MAKE YOUR SELECTION (what to display and how to sort)Category:        

Click on in order to re-actualize!

... Oklahoma City, Oklahoma — Historically speaking, Oklahoma used to be a place where almost no palpable earthquakes happened at all — but hydraulic fracturing, a.k.a. “fracking” has changed all that now. Between the dates June 17 and June 24, 2015, Oklahoma was jolted by 35 earthquakes greater than magnitude 3.0 due to fracking and fracking wastewater injection activities the Oklahoma Geological Survey (OGS) has confirmed — this, in a state that experienced less than two such quakes per year before 2009. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The development of unconventional oil and natural gas resources using horizontal drilling and high-volume hydraulic fracturing has created new demand for wastewater disposal wells that inject waste fluids into deep geologic strata. Deep-well injection has long been the environmentally preferred method for managing produced brine and other wastewater associated with oil and gas production. However, an increasing concern in the United States is that injection of these fluids may be responsible for increasing rates of seismic activity. The number of earthquakes of magnitude 3.0 or greater in the central and eastern United States has increased dramatically since about 2009 from an average of approximately 20 per year between 1970 and 2000 to over 100 per year in the period 2010-2013. Some of these earthquakes may be felt at the surface. For example, 20 earthquakes of magnitudes 4.0 to 4.8 have occurred in central Oklahoma since 2009. The largest earthquake in Oklahoma history (magnitude 5.6) occurred on November 5, 2011, near Prague, causing damage to several structures nearby. Central and northern Oklahoma were seismically active regions before the recent increase in the volume of waste fluid injection through deep wells. However, the recent earthquake swarm does not seem to be due to typical, random changes in the rate of seismicity, according to the U.S. Geological Survey. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A survey of 60 estate agents commissioned by Greenpeace UK has found that they believe fracking is likely to wipe tens of thousands of pounds off the values of nearby properties and make homes harder to sell. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... New research indicates that wastewater disposal wells—and sometimes fracking itself—can induce earthquakes Gas Drilling Earthquakes MORE Geologists: Fracking Likely Cause of Ohio Earthquakes Exxon Mobil to Reveal Fracking Data Oklahoma Shakes—Is Fracking to Blame? Ohio regulators did something last month that had never been done before: they drew a tentative link between shale gas fracking and an increase in local earthquakes. As fracking has grown in the U.S., so have the number of earthquakes—there were more than 100 recorded quakes of magnitude 3.0 or larger each year between 2010 and 2013, compared to an average of 21 per year over the preceding three decades. That includes a sudden increase in seismic activity in usually calm states like Kansas, Oklahoma and Ohio—states that have also seen a rapid increase in oil and gas development. Shale gas and oil development is still growing rapidly—more than eightfold between 2007 and 2o12—but if fracking and drilling can lead to dangerous quakes, America?s homegrown energy revolution might be in for an early end. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Fracking could wipe thousands of pounds off the value of homes in areas where the controversial mining technique is allowed to go ahead. The first extensive estate agents? survey in Lancashire, Manchester and Sussex ? areas in which energy firms have applied to start extracting shale gas ? showed that two thirds of respondents thought house prices would suffer. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Hydraulic fracturing injects millions of gallons of water into oil and gas containing geologic formations deep underground. Scientific and government research indicates that fracking can cause earthquakes in two ways: Primarily, during the fracking process: "[Earthquakes] were caused by fluid injection during hydraulic fracturing in proximity to pre-existing faults." Secondarily, via the disposal of fracking wastewater via underground injection. Our report Shaky Ground explores the risks of fracking triggered earthquakes in California. And increased earthquake activity in shale plays with active injection wells, like Texas, Oklahoma and Ohio show the risks are real. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Although fracking itself can cause earthquakes, they are smaller and less frequently felt than earthquakes produced from underground injection control wells. A study in Seismological Research Letters found that fracking was the likely culprit of hundreds of small tremors in Ohio during 2013; another Ohio-based study that came out in 2015 pinpointed fracking as the cause of a 3.0 magnitude earthquake near Poland Township. In 2011, fracking was associated with a 3.8 magnitude earthquake in British Columbia, Canada; that same year, in Blackpool, England, two earthquakes were directly linked to fracking operations. Fracking has also been linked to an earthquake that was felt in Garvin County, Oklahoma in 2011.10 ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has finally confirmed that wastewater fracking is causing earthquakes, in a newly released report. According to the report, the state of Oklahoma has experienced the highest number of earthquakes thought to be caused by man-made activity in the central and eastern United States. One such incident was a 5.6-magnitude earthquake in 2011. The initial shaking was caused by a foreshock originating in an area only 200 yards away from a spot where wastewater fracking had been taking place for 18 years. The water caused pressure changes underground, leading to an earthquake felt in at least 17 states. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... As the US Geological Survey confirmed on Thursday, in the last seven years, geologically staid parts of the US have seen earthquakes like they haven?t seen for millions of years. And they were triggered by drilling for oil and gas. The drilling ? or rather, the process of injecting water deep underground ? has been triggering earthquakes in Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma and Texas. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... PASADENA, Calif. — New earthquake hazard maps signal a watershed moment: They show that fracking's byproducts are clearly to blame for swarms of earthquakes plaguing several states. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... More than a dozen areas in the US have been shaken in recent years by small earthquakes triggered by oil and gas drilling, according to a government report released on Thursday. The man-made quakes jolted once-stable regions in eight states, including parts of Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma and Texas, according to researchers at the US Geological Survey. Experts said the spike in seismic activity was mainly caused by the oil and gas industry injecting wastewater deep underground, which can activate dormant faults. A few instances stem from hydraulic fracturing, in which large volumes of water, sand and chemicals are pumped into rock formations in order to free oil or gas. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The Oklahoma Geological Survey said Tuesday it is "very likely" that most of the state's recent earthquakes were triggered by the subsurface injection of wastewater from oil and natural gas drilling operations. Geologists have been studying the cause of hundreds of earthquakes that have shaken the homes and the nerves of residents in central and north-central Oklahoma, where the pace of oil and gas drilling has accelerated in recent years. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... It seems unlikely that Kansas, known as one of the most conservative states in the U.S. and home to fossil fuel barons the Koch Brothers, would take action against the oil and gas industries. But in the face of a new wave of earthquakes attributed to the underground injection of fracking wastewater, its industry regulating body, the Kansas Corporation Commission (KCC), ordered a reduction of wastewater injection in two counties abutting Oklahoma, finding that increased earthquake activity correlated with increasing volumes of injected fracking water. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Down in Harper County, Kansas, a recent and sudden rise in earthquakes has caused structural cracks and damages to the courthouse, with repairs estimated at $1.1 million. In adjacent Sumner County — also located in the Sunflower State along the Kansas-Oklahoma border — earthquakes continue to damage homeowners' walls and roofs. Last November, the largest earthquake ever recorded in Kansas occurred in Sumner County. These quakes are new phenomena. From 1977 to 2012, only about 30 earthquakes happened in Kansas that were strong enough to feel, Rex Buchanan, interim director at the Kansas Geological Survey, has said. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Recently released research on earthquakes in Oklahoma explains why injection wells may cause quakes here and warns of the possibility for big ones. The report points toward unusually aligned faults underneath Oklahoma that have been reawakened, leading to the swarm of earthquakes in recent years that have scientists and others pointing toward injection wells and fracking as the culprits. The paper itself stays away from the political fray over whether oil and gas recovery in Oklahoma is the trigger, objectively explaining why the faults could suddenly reactivate in the first place and the likelihood of worse quakes occurring. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Swarms of earthquakes have been rattling Oklahoma, Texas and other central states with a history of little or no seismic activity. The recent quakes, according to scientists, may be the fault of deep underground injections of wastewater left over from fracking. Are you worried oil and gas activity in North Dakota will lead to earthquakes? Yes No Don't know Vote View Results Previous Polls But in North Dakota, where wastewater injection wells are abundant, the ground has remained largely unshaken. So why are other oil-producing regions significantly more wobbly? ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Are seismologists in Oklahoma being pressured to play down the connection between fracking and the state's recent uptick in earthquakes? All of a sudden Oklahoma is one of the most earthquake-prone areas in the country. Last year, with a grand total of 585 earthquakes, Oklahoma far surpassed the notoriously seismic State of California. Seismologists postulate that disposal wells are to blame. Water and brine injected underground at enormous pressure can cause faults to slip, triggering an earthquake. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... (Reuters) ? Dutch church bells that for centuries have tolled to warn of floods across the low-lying countryside are sounding the alarm for a new threat: earthquakes linked to Europe?s largest natural gas field. “Money can buy a lot of things, but a building like this cannot be replaced,” said Jur Bekooy, a civil engineer with the Groningen Old Churches Association, pointing to cracks in the ceiling and walls of the 13th-century Maria Church in the village of Westerwijtwerd. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Western Australia's beekeepers are opposing a plan to clear part of a nature reserve named after them for shale gas exploration. The company behind the venture said Beekeepers Nature Reserve would not be fracked and would be rehabilitated, but opponents said they wanted it to be out of bounds for the oil and gas industry. Honey producers have used the Beekeepers Nature Reserve, 250 kilometres north of Perth, for decades because of its high quality native vegetation. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Ancient fault lines stretching across areas once considered geologically stable have been roused by the forces of industry and are now triggering chains of earthquakes in states where structures are not built to withstand the shaking of an earthquake. "There is now a substantial level of seismic hazard in areas where there used to be almost none," U.S. Geological Survey Geophysicist Art McGarr said. "These areas now have to deal with it, and there are costs in dealing with seismic hazard." ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The US Geological Survey has called for more transparency and cooperation among “interested stakeholders” in order to monitor and mitigate the effects of fracking, a process widely blamed for the recent explosion of earthquakes in states like Oklahoma. A new USGS report, published in the journal Science, connected the increase of unnatural seismic activity in states targeted for oil and gas drilling -- including Oklahoma, Texas, Ohio, and Pennsylvania -- with the injection of wastewater vital to the process of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The US Geological Survey has called for more transparency and cooperation among “interested stakeholders” in order to monitor and mitigate the effects of fracking, a process widely blamed for the recent explosion of earthquakes in states like Oklahoma. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... C?est bien l?exploitation du gaz de Groningue qui est responsable des séismes ayant détruit des milliers de logements en 2012 et 2013, confirme le rapport d?une autorité indépendante. De quoi saper la confiance des Néerlandais dans leur industrie gazière et leurs autorités. Ni le gouvernement néerlandais, ni ExxonMobil, ni la Royal Dutch Shell n?ont jamais considéré le risque sismique en un demi-siècle d?exploitation du plus gros gisement européen de gaz naturel. Telle est la principale conclusion d?un rapport, rendu public mercredi 18 février, par le bureau néerlandais de la s?reté, une autorité indépendante. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... MENLO PARK, Calif.— A paper published today in Science provides a case for increasing transparency and data collection to enable strategies for mitigating the effects of human-induced earthquakes caused by wastewater injection associated with oil and gas production in the United States. The paper is the result of a series of workshops led by scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the University of Colorado, Oklahoma Geological Survey and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, suggests that it is possible to reduce the hazard of induced seismicity through management of injection activities. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Introduction On 16 August 2012 the village of Huizinge in the province of Groningen was rocked by an earthquake with a magnitude of 3.6 on the Richter scale. It was the worst earthquake caused by gas extraction that had been observed thus far in the Netherlands. The quake caused a lot of damage and led to concern. The confidence of residents in the safety of the gas extraction and the parties involved reached a low point. The Dutch Safety Board having followed the case for some time already, decided in early 2014 to launch an investigation. The Dutch Safety Board has investigated the decision making process on gas extraction in Groningen and has particularly looked at how the safety of residents in relation to earthquakes is considered. This investigation covers the period from the discovery of the Groningen gas fields in 1959 to the presentation of the package of measures by the Minister of Economic Affairs in January 2014. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Oklahoma, Ohio and Arkansas have experienced an unusually large number of earthquakes in recent years. The shaking is rising at the same time that oil and gas production have increased. But other states that are hotbeds for new drilling have stayed seismically quiet, such as Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... HUTCHINSON, Kan. — For at the last 15 months, Kansas geologist Rex Buchanan estimates, he?s spent 90 percent of his time studying something once relatively rare in the state ? earthquakes. He has learned a lot, said the director of the Kansas Geological Survey, whose focus in the past was primarily on water and geologic formations, including just how little is known, The Hutchinson News reports. One thing that has become clear, Buchanan said, is that there is a correlation between the majority of the 120-plus earthquakes recorded in Kansas last year and the injection of wastewater into deep disposal wells. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... EDMONTON - The Alberta Energy Regulator is investigating an earthquake near Fox Creek this month that may be linked to hydraulic fracturing. On Jan. 22, the AER confirmed a “seismic event” with a magnitude of 4.4 on the Richter scale about 33 kilometres west of Fox Creek, which is 260 km northwest of Edmonton. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... For at the last 15 months, Kansas geologist Rex Buchanan estimates, he?s spent 90 percent of his time studying something once relatively rare in the state ? earthquakes. He has learned a lot, said the director of the Kansas Geological Survey, whose focus in the past was primarily on water and geologic formations, including just how little is known. One thing that has become clear, Buchanan said, is that there is a correlation between the majority of the 120-plus earthquakes recorded in Kansas last year and the injection of wastewater into deep disposal wells. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Hydraulic fracturing, a technology used to crack open difficult oil and gas formations, appears to have set off a swarm of earthquakes near Fox Creek, Alberta, including a record-breaking tremor with a felt magnitude of 4.4 last week. That would likely make it the largest felt earthquake ever caused by fracking, a development that experts swore couldn?t happen a few years ago. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Oil and gas activity in Kansas is likely to blame for the state's recent spate of earthquakes, geologists said this week. Their finding adds to the mounting evidence across the country that injecting wastewater from oil and gas wells can cause seismic shocks in typically stable areas. “I think [researchers] do see a correlation between the increased number and volume of disposal wells in south-central Kansas and seismic activity,” Rex Buchanan, interim director of the Kansas Geological Survey, told the state?s House Energy and Environment Committee earlier this week, according to local media reports. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Oklahoma?s highest court is about to make a decision that could really shake up the way fracking companies do business in the state. In the coming months, Oklahoma?s Supreme Court will decide whether two oil companies should be held financially responsible for injuries suffered by a woman during a 2011 earthquake thought to have been caused by drilling activity. If the woman?s lawsuit is successful, it could set a legal precedent for future earthquake claims against oil and gas companies in Oklahoma. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... According to StateImpact Texas, the earthquakes aren?t caused by the drilling used in hydraulic fracturing, they result from the disposal wells located thousands of feet under the ground. These wells store drilling fluid, a chemical-laced water encased in concrete. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... “The upsurge in quakes started in Texas around the time the oil and gas boom took hold several years ago,” reported StateImpact Texas. “Residents in many parts of the state blame the them on wastewater disposal wells, where fluid byproducts of oil and gas drilling are pumped deep into the ground. Scientists have shown how injecting fluid into the ground can cause earthquakes.” ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Ohio is now on a similar trajectory to Oklahoma, which saw a five-fold increase in earthquakes in 2014. A new study published in the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America has confirmed that a fracking operation near Poland Township in Ohio activated a previously unknown fault in the Earth, causing 77 earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 1.0 to 3.0 between March 4 and March 12 in 2014. The drilling company, Hilcorp Energy, was forced to halt operations by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources on March 10 after nearby residents felt the 3.0-magnitude earthquake. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A study by seven researchers from California, Colorado, Massachusetts, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio and the UK, The Environmental Costs and Benefits of Fracking, said “Unconventional oil and natural gas extraction enabled by horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing [fracking] is driving an economic boom with consequences described from 'revolutionary? to 'disastrous.? The reality lies somewhere in between.” ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR) has ordered Texas-based energy company Hilcorp to halt all fracking operations in Mahoning County after at least four earthquakes shook the area on Monday. A magnitude 3.0 earthquake at 2:26 a.m. and a magnitude 2.6 at 11:45 a.m. on March 10 were among those reported in Poland Township just south of Youngstown near a fracking site with seven drilling wells, according to the U.S. Geological Survey. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A new study by Miami University geologists links the March 2014 earthquakes in Poland Township, Ohio, to hydraulic fracturing that activated a previously unknown fault. The induced seismic sequence included a rare felt earthquake of magnitude 3.0, according to research published online Jan. 6 by the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (BSSA). ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Kansas officials have been reluctant to link the mysterious earthquakes in south central Kansas to fracking, but last week they said for the first time the temblors are likely caused by disposal of the waste water that is a byproduct of the oil and gas extraction process. “We can say there is a strong correlation between the disposal of saltwater and the earthquakes,” Rick Miller, geophysicist and senior scientist for the Kansas Geological Survey, told the Journal-World. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Oklahoma has experienced a major increase in earthquakes in recent years, including a 5.7-magnitude temblor that injured residents and damaged 200 buildings in November 2011. Swarms of quakes have continued in 2015. In 2014, Oklahoma was the most seismically active state in the Lower 48 and recorded three times as many quakes as California. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Oklahoma is likely the last place that comes to mind when someone says “earthquakes.” But the home of the famed “tornado alley” is experiencing a record number of tremors. Analysts say it?s because of fracking, the process of “fracturing” rock by hydraulically-pressured liquid (water) to extract tight oil or natural gas. ... (See internet for the rest!)


... Since records began in 1776, the people of Youngstown, Ohio had never felt an earthquake. Then in 2011, the earth began to shake. According to new research, these earthquakes were probably caused by fracking. Fracking is a slang term for 'hydraulic fracturing? which is the process of injecting liquid at high pressure into subterranean rocks through boreholes and by other methods to force open existing fissures and extract oil or gas. As you can imagine, this produces a lot of wastewater. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Texas regulators and politicians have shrugged off such complaints for years. The leap from suspected environmental exposure to definitive proof of harm is a difficult one, and they insist they?ve found no cause for concern. Officials in other states have said the same thing as hydraulic fracturing — known as fracking — moved beyond Texas and opened up lucrative oil and gas deposits across the country. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Now the Barnett has more than 16,000 gas-producing wells and thousands of engines, tanks and other necessary infrastructure, all helping get fuel to consumers but also emitting air pollutants ranging from methane to the carcinogen benzene. Their proximity to people — and the mounting evidence that such proximity can carry health risks — has driven grassroots efforts in some communities to get more control over how or where the sites operate. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Conversations on the negative environmental and public health impacts of shale gas development continue to play out in the media, in policy discussions, and among the general public. But what does the science actually say? While research continues to lag behind the rapid scaling of shale gas development, there has been a surge of peer-reviewed scientific papers published in recent years. In fact, of all the available scientific peer-reviewed literature on the impacts of shale gas development approximately 73% has been published since January 1, 2013. What this tells us is that the scientific community is only now beginning to understand the impacts of this industry on the environment and human populations. Hazards and risks have been identified, but many data gaps still persist. Importantly, there remains a dearth of quantitative epidemiology that assesses associations between risk factors and human health outcomes among populations. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... "UOG operations release large amounts of reproductive, immunological, and neurological toxicants, carcinogens as well as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) into the environment that may negatively affect human health." The claim is quite dramatic and makes for a good press release, benefiting the Center for Environmental Health (CEH) campaign against unconventional oil and natural gas (UOG) drilling, widely known as 'fracking'. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Earthquake! We must be in California, right? Wrong. As of mid-2014, Oklahoma surpassed California in number of 3.0 or higher magnitude earthquakes. How? Scientists are beginning to speculate that hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking,” is the cause behind this phenomenon. Currently occurring in more than 25 states, the process uses “massive amounts of water” which “could be responsible for creating a wave of pressure ? that triggered the earthquakes.” ... (See internet for the rest!)

... As the level of concern about fracking rises—what chemicals are being used in these “unconventional oil and gas (UOG) operations, whether they are getting into the water and air, and whether information on them is being withheld from communities—a new study adds more evidence that the concern is justified. It asserts that fracking increases the rate of miscarriage, as well as other reproductive and developmental problems. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Oakland, CA-A new paper released online today in the peer-reviewed journal Reviews on Environmental Health finds that chemicals from unconventional oil and gas (UOG) operations, including from fracking, pose serious health risks, in particular to women and young children. The review finds that fracking operations use and/or create chemicals linked to birth defects, infertility, miscarriage, impaired fetal growth, low birth weight, preterm birth, and premature or delayed sexual development, among other health problems. Following a recent air monitoring study documenting pollution risks from fracking, this comprehensive literature review adds to the growing scientific concern that fracking poses unacceptable health risks to nearby communities. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A new study links shale oil and gas development to a host of developmental and reproductive health risks, and says the processes involved ? including hydraulic fracturing, or fracking ? pose a particularly potent threat to what researchers called "our most vulnerable population." ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Abstract Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) operations have the potential to increase air and water pollution in communities located near UOG operations. Every stage of UOG operation from well construction to extraction, operations, transportation, and distribution can lead to air and water contamination. Hundreds of chemicals are associated with the process of unconventional oil and natural gas production. In this work, we review the scientific literature providing evidence that adult and early life exposure to chemicals associated with UOG operations can result in adverse reproductive health and developmental effects in humans. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) [including benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene (BTEX) and formaldehyde] and heavy metals (including arsenic, cadmium and lead) are just a few of the known contributors to reduced air and water quality that pose a threat to human developmental and reproductive health. The developing fetus is particularly sensitive to environmental factors, which include air and water pollution. Research shows that there are critical windows of vulnerability during prenatal and early postnatal development, during which chemical exposures can cause potentially permanent damage to the growing embryo and fetus. Many of the air and water pollutants found near UOG operation sites are recognized as being developmental and reproductive toxicants; therefore there is a compelling need to increase our knowledge of the potential health consequences for adults, infants, and children from these chemicals through rapid and thorough health research investigation. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Le 30 janvier 2014, le ministre du Développement durable, de l?Environnement et des Parcs de l?époque, M. Yves-François Blanchet, confiait au Bureau d?audiences publiques sur l?environnement (BAPE), en vertu de l?article 6.3 de la Loi sur la qualité de l?environnement (c. Q-2), le mandat de faire enquête et de tenir une consultation publique sur les enjeux liés à l?exploration et l?exploitation du gaz de schiste dans le shale d?Utica des basses-terres du Saint-Laurent. Ce mandat d?enquête, qui fait suite aux travaux du Comité sur l?évaluation environnementale stratégique, avait pour objet d?éclairer le gouvernement dans sa réflexion sur cette filière énergétique dans une perspective de développement durable. Le 18 février 2014, le président du BAPE, M. Pierre Baril, formait une commission d?enquête dont le mandat, s?échelonnant sur huit mois, débutait le 31 mars 2014 et dont le rapport devait être déposé au ministre au plus tard le 28 novembre 2014. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The individuals and housing corporations want NAM to reimburse the depreciation of their homes caused by gas extraction. This involves a total of 100 thousand homes. The plaintiffs want the compensation to be paid directly and not only after the houses are sold with a possible loss, as Minister Henk Kamp of Economic Affairs wants. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... While fracking in the UK might be in its infancy, and the INEOS announcement suggests significant industrial fracking across the densely populated Midland region of Scotland, a large amount of health impact data from the USA is now coming to light, summarised by a Correspondent in The Lancet , the leading medical journal. In the USA there are more than 1 million wells fracked. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The first researchers to systematically document ill health in livestock, pets, and people living near fracking drill sites were Michelle Bamberger and Robert Oswald. Bamberger, a veterinarian, and Oswald, a professor of molecular medicine at Cornell University, used a case study approach?looking at individual households?to search for possible effects (Bamberger and Oswald 2012). ... (See internet for the rest!)

... I no longer report every frackquake that happens in this area. Who can keep up with them all? And unlike in the beginning when anyone suggesting a link to fracking and earthquakes was shouted down, now days it?s an accepted fact. But the M3.3 quake in Irving last night and a few responses on Twitter requires that I revisit the issue with some random facts and opinion. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... (Reuters) - A light earthquake shook the Dallas-Ft. Worth area of North Texas on Saturday night, leaving no known damage or casualties but stirring concern about the potential of the area's oil and gas fracking industry to generate seismic activity. The magnitude 3.3 earthquake struck about 9:15 p.m. Central time on Saturday, said Dale Grant, an geophysicist with the U.S. Geological Survey. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A new study has been publisheda tentatively suggesting that there are significant health effects for those living in close proximity to gas fracking sites. The study may make headlines despite the authors expressly stating that the results should be viewed as 'hypothesis generating?. There are a number of problems with the survey which could indicate small sample size and biases in adjusting for other factors account for the difference. Alternatively there is also the possibility that reported health effects of living near the fracking sites is due to stress from the false perceptions of the risks of living near to a fracking site. Anti-fracking environmentalists may be damaging people?s health and happiness through misinformation. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... As Oklahoma continues to experience more earthquakes than California this year, residents are questioning why regulators haven?t taken any meaningful action to guard against increased seismic activity. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) says that wastewater injection into deep geologic formations, a part of the hydraulic fracturing (fracking) process, is a likely contributing factor to this increase in quakes. The phenomenon, known as “injection-induced seismicity,” has been documented for nearly half a century, according to the USGS. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... It seems as though, with each day that passes, yet another health and environmental hazard is identified as being linked to hydraulic fracking, the process of injecting more than 200 chemicals at high pressure into the ground, shattering rock and releasing one America?s most valued resources, natural gas. Hydraulic fracking continues to be proven more dangerous than scientists imagined, with the latest research unmasking unthinkable health effects in residents living near a fracking site. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Evidence is growing that fracking for oil and gas is causing earthquakes that shake the heartland. States such as Oklahoma, Texas, Kansas and Ohio are being hit by earthquakes that appear linked to oil and gas activity. While the quakes are far more often tied to disposal of drilling waste, scientists also have increasingly have started pointing to hydraulic fracturing itself. “Certainly I think there may be more of this that has gone on than we previously recognized,” Oklahoma Geological Survey seismologist Austin Holland told colleagues last week. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... GREELEY — NGL Water Solutions DJ LLC, whose fracking-fluid disposal well was linked to earthquakes near the Greeley Airport late last spring, has asked to boost by 20 percent the amount of water it can inject underground, despite ongoing low-level quake activity captured by a new state monitoring program. Since injections were temporarily suspended at the well in June, earthquakes have occurred every month at the 10,400-foot-deep well, according to documents obtained by BizWest through a Colorado Open Records Act request. At least one was nearly as large as the event that triggered a state investigation. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... New rules for Texas injection wastewater well operators offer no relief to people impacted by more than 30 earthquakes that hit Azle, Reno and Springtown almost a year ago. Many buildings in the three small cities, 50 miles west of Dallas, Texas, suffered broken windows, cracked walls, damaged plumbing and foundations. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... In a small patch northwest of Fort Worth, Texas — where the Barnett Shale set off the decade-long “fracking” boom that?s moved the U.S. closer to energy independence — there?s a surprising uprising brewing over drilling for natural gas. Energy-friendly Texas is now dealing with earthquakes. Since Nov. 1, more than 30 small temblors have struck the rural area around Azle (pop. 11,000), and many residents are blaming the quakes on underground disposal wells, used to get rid of wastewater generated during the fracking and production process. Drillers inject the salty wastewater into wells a mile or two deep. - See more at: ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The rise in quakes in Kansas and other states has raised suspicions that the shaking might be connected to the oil and gas drilling method known as hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, especially the wells in which the industry disposes of its wastewater. But a panel commissioned by Brownback said in a report earlier this fall that there wasn?t enough evidence to link the Kansas quakes to oil and gas exploration. Read more here: ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Kansas had an earthquake yesterday on a Richter scale of 4.8. Like many earthquakes in areas that are mostly sedimentary rock, fracking is suspected. However, the state is firmly in denial about the cause of these mysterious earthquakes. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Wednesday?s quake, with a magnitude of 4.8, was the strongest of the hundreds to have occurred in the Oklahoma area in the last 11 months, said Dale Grant, a geophysicist with the USGS. Oklahoma has seen a sharp jump in earthquakes with the explosive growth in well drilling commonly referred to as fracking. Kansas, too, has seen a jump. The location of this quake was just north of the Oklahoma-Kansas border. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The rules governing fracking could safely be relaxed to permit stronger earthquakes caused by drilling for shale gas, a study suggests. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Fracking firms must be allowed to cause far more significant earth tremors if the Government wants the shale gas industry to succeed, leading academics have warned. Current regulations, imposed two years ago, are equivalent to banning buses from driving past houses or prohibiting the slamming of wooden doors, according to Dr Rob Westaway and Professor Paul Younger, of the University of Glasgow's School of Engineering. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Liquefaction of the ground underneath your property sounds a bit remote, but geologists, petroleum engineers and oil and gas drillers, know very well how important the word can be. Liquefaction is when the nature of the geology, soils underground, water saturated unconsolidated sediment is hit by seismic waves or vibration. This often thousands of feet underground, allowing the earth pressures to move things around. We call that movement Earthquakes. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Land near the Colorado-New Mexico border has recently been caving inwards in an area where a 5.3 magnitude earthquake took place in 2011. As KRCC?s Dana Cronin reports, scientists at the United States Geological Survey are pointing to wastewater disposal as a potential trigger. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Ongoing earthquake swarm in northwestern Nevada Nevada Seismological Laboratory at University of Nevada, Reno joins with other federal, Washington and Oregon agencies to provide update RENO, Nev. A swarm of earthquakes in a sparsely populated area of far northwest Nevada that began on July 12, 2014, has increased in intensity over the past several days. This activity is located about 40 miles southeast of Lakeview, Ore., and 40 miles northeast of Cedarville, Calif. During the past three months the Nevada Seismological Laboratory, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and seismic networks in Washington and Oregon, has recorded 42 earthquakes larger than Magnitude 3, and about 550 earthquakes larger than Magnitude 2. Three Magnitude 4+ events have occurred since Oct. 30, with the largest event of the sequence, Magnitude 4.6, at 11:23 p.m., Nov. 4, 2014 (PST). ... (See internet for the rest!)

... WASHINGTON — Evidence is growing that fracking for oil and gas is causing earthquakes that shake the heartland. States like Oklahoma, Texas, Kansas and Ohio are being hit by earthquakes that appear linked to oil and gas activity. While the quakes are far more often tied to disposal of drilling waste, scientists also increasingly have started pointing to the fracking process itself. “Certainly I think there may be more of this that has gone on than we previously recognized,” Oklahoma Geological Survey seismologist Austin Holland told colleagues last week. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Gu is one of three authors of a recently published study in the Journal of Geophysical Research, a peer-reviewed publication that looked at four years of earthquake data around Rocky Mountain House. The study concludes that waste-water injection into the ground is highly correlated with spikes in earthquake activity in the area. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... High concentrations of airborne chemicals were recorded near oil-and-gas drilling sites in five states, a new study found. The report is the latest attempt by scientists and researchers to quantify how the process of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, may affect Americans? health. Eight harmful chemicals appeared near wells and fracking sites in Arkansas, Colorado, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Wyoming at levels far above what federal regulators consider to be safe. The most common of the bunch were benzene -- a compound known to cause cancer in humans -- and formaldehyde, which is associated with certain types of cancer. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Fracking wells may release cancer-causing chemicals into the air, a community science study has found. Residents trained to take air quality samples recorded high levels of benzene, hydrogen sulphide and formaldehyde near shale gas extraction sites in the US. While based on a small number of samples, the study published in Environmental Health adds a new set of potential health threats to fracking?s rap sheet. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Oklahoma?s earthquake surge is unrelenting. The shaking is rattling residents and cracking the foundations of homes. The quakes have also strained state agencies, which are struggling to keep up with the ongoing swarm while simultaneously developing a longer-term plan to analyze and address factors that might be triggering the earthquakes. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Oil and gas companies in Texas must now research seismic data for a given area before they can receive a permit to drill disposal wells, according to new rules from the Texas Railroad Commission. The agency, which is in charge of regulating oil and gas activity in the state, adopted new rules Tuesday that require oil and gas companies to “include a printed copy or screenshot” of the seismic data for the area they?re proposing to drill in their permit application. The seismic data will include instances of previous earthquakes in the 100-square-mile region around the proposed drilling site, and will help the Texas Railroad Commission determine what spots might be too risky for disposal of fracking waste. The rules also allow the agency to change, suspend or end a company?s permit for well disposal if the well is “likely to be or determined to be contributing to seismic activity.” ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The Texas Railroad Commission ruled Tuesday that oil and gas companies must check local seismic data from the U.S. Geological Survey before opening a new waste disposal well. The new rule follows a series of small but unexpected earthquakes almost 12 months ago around the North Texas town of Azle in the natural gas rich Barnett Shale. The earthquakes are under study by scientists at Southern Methodist University to determine if they were induced by nearby injection wells used to dispose of drilling waste. The railroad commission came under pressure from Azle residents and legislators earlier this year to move without definitive findings, which could be years away. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... AUSTIN —The three Texas Railroad Commissioners today unanimously adopted disposal well rule amendments that are designed to address disposal well operations in areas of historical or future seismic activity. Disposal wells are permitted by the Railroad Commission to safely dispose of non-hazardous produced water (saltwater) and hydraulic fracture flowback fluid from oil and gas wells. Chairman Christi Craddick said, “Once again the Texas Railroad Commission is taking the lead in ensuring our rules follow science in protecting our natural resources while at the same time providing a stable regulatory environment for our oil and gas operators.” ... (See internet for the rest!)

... AVILA BEACH, San Luis Obispo County (CBS SF) — An environmental group asked a federal court Tuesday to review its claim that California?s last operating nuclear power plant is violating federal law and should be shut down at least temporarily. In a petition filed in Washington with the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, Friends of the Earth said the Nuclear Regulatory Commission violated its own rules when it altered the operating license for the Diablo Canyon reactors. The petition marked the latest development in the dispute over potential danger posed by earthquake faults near the reactors. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Texas regulators on Tuesday tightened rules for wells that dispose of oilfield waste, a response to the spate of earthquakes that have rattled North Texas. The three-member Texas Railroad Commission voted unanimously to adopt the rules, which require companies to submit additional information ? including historic records of earthquakes in a region? when applying to drill a disposal well. The proposal also clarifies that the commission can slow or halt injections of fracking waste into a problematic well and require companies to disclose the volume and pressure of their injections more frequently. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Does Fracking Cause Earthquakes? Hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking,” (a drilling process that injects millions of gallons of water, sand and chemicals under high pressure into a well, cracking the rock and to release natural gas and oil) has only been known to rarely cause earthquakes. But the disposal of drilling wastewater used in fracking has now been scientifically linked to earthquakes. The fluids used in fracking (and the wastewater that comes back up the well) is disposed of by injecting it into disposal wells deep underground. This is generally regarded as the safest, most cost-efficient way to get rid of it. But in some parts of the country, especially in the Barnett Shale area around Dallas-Fort Worth, it has also been causing earthquakes. And they?re growing both in number and strength. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Fracking is a slang term used for the technique of hydraulic fracturing, in which liquids are forced into layers of rock to create and enlarge fractures for the purpose of extracting raw petroleum materials like oil and natural gas. Some experts and concerned citizens in areas where fracking is performed have claimed that it can cause earthquakes. This controversial practice has not been conclusively tied to seismic activity, but there is some evidence linking fracking and earthquakes. To what extent, if any, fracking contributes to tremors or other seismic events is unknown. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... SAN FRANCISCO (KCBS) — As the Bay Area marked the 25th anniversary of the Loma Prieta earthquake on Friday, there was no shortage of reminders of the power of Mother Nature and the promise of other big quakes to come. But along with trying to predict Mother Nature?s timing of quakes, researchers are also looking into how hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, can impact geological events. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The controversial oil and gas drilling technique of hydraulic fracturing, commonly known as fracking, triggered 400 small earthquakes in Ohio over a three-month period in 2013, according to new peer-reviewed research published Tuesday. Conducted by seismologists Paul Friberg, Ilya Dricker, and Glenda Besana-Ostman, the research reveals a previously undiscovered fault line approximately two miles below three horizontal gas wells near the town of Uhrichsville, Ohio. In one instance, the researchers say they detected 190 tiny earthquakes below one of those wells during a 39-hour period starting just after that well was fracked. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Another rare case of fracking-caused earthquakes has jolted Ohio. A new study connects some 400 micro-earthquakes near the town of Canton, in Harrison County, to hydraulic fracturing wells. The three wells operated from September through October 2013 in the Utica Shale. Ten of the quakes registered between magnitude 1.7 and magnitude 2.2, but the tremors were too deep to cause damage or to be easily felt by people, according to the study, published Tuesday in the journal Seismological Research Letters. The new study is the second report this year of fracking-linked earthquakes from drilling in the Utica Shale. In March, scientists with Ohio's Department of Natural Resources shut down drilling at seven Utica Shale gas wells in Poland Township after fracking triggered two small earthquakes. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A new study on the practice of hydraulic fracturing has found a direct connection to some 400 micro-earthquakes in an Ohio town. This is the second report on the Utica Shale this year. The town is one of very few where the quakes took place on a fault. The new study, published Tuesday in the journal Seismological Research Letters, focuses on the eastern town of Canton, Harrison County, and three particular wells. It has found that the three wells operated in September-October 2013 in the Utica Shale caused 10 quakes of magnitude 1.7-2.2, among others. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... In the context of climate change and the environment as a whole, today?s crude oil and natural gas boom is the ultimate mixed bag. A new study from a team of researchers at Stanford and Duke universities, as well as other institutions, weighs the good with the bad of oil and gas development: Natural gas development and consumption, especially for producing electrical power, can boost local economies while reducing air pollution from coal-fired power plants and helping to wean the power grid away from sources of energy that emit huge amounts of climate-changing CO2 when burned. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Another rare case of fracking-caused earthquakes has jolted Ohio. A new study connects some 400 micro-earthquakes in Harrison County, near the town of Canton, to hydraulic fracturing wells. The three wells operated from September through October 2013 in the Utica Shale. Ten of the quakes registered between magnitude 1.7 and magnitude 2.2, but the tremors were too deep to cause damage or to be easily felt by people, according to the study, published today (Oct. 14) in the journal Seismological Research Letters. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A new study connects some 400 micro-earthquakes near the town of Canton, in Harrison County, to hydraulic fracturing wells. The three wells operated from September through October 2013 in the Utica Shale. Ten of the quakes registered between magnitude 1.7 and magnitude 2.2, but the tremors were too deep to cause damage or to be easily felt by people, according to the study, published today (Oct. 14) in the journal Seismological Research Letters. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Hydraulic fracturing triggered a series of small earthquakes in 2013 on a previously unmapped fault in Harrison County, Ohio, according to a study published in the journal Seismological Research Letters (SRL). Related Articles Fracking Elastic-rebound theory of earthquakes Alpine Fault Earthquake Geologic fault Making existing structures earthquake resistant Nearly 400 small earthquakes occurred between Oct. 1 and Dec. 13, 2013, including 10 "positive" magnitude earthquake, none of which were reported felt by the public. The 10 positive magnitude earthquakes, which ranged from magnitude 1.7 to 2.2, occurred between Oct. 2 and 19, coinciding with hydraulic fracturing operations at nearby wells. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... In the United States, about 750 compounds have been listed as additives for hydraulic fracturing in a report to the US Congress in 2011 after originally being kept secret for "commercial reasons". The following is a partial list of the chemical constituents in additives that are used or have been used in fracturing operations, as based on the report of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, some are known to be carcinogenic. In the UK only 'Non-Hazardous' chemicals are permitted for fracturing fluids by the Environment Agency. All chemicals have to be declared publicly and, increasingly, food additive based chemicals are available to allow fracking to take place safely. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Dishes rattle; walls crack. In earthquake-prone Japan people know what is happening. In Texas, these tremors are something new, and people are trying to understand their relationship to hydraulic fracturing, commonly called "fracking." Fracking requires vast quantities of wastewater to be injected underground. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... OKLAHOMA CITY ? The magnitude-4 earthquake that rattled Cushing shortly before noon Tuesday occurred three weeks prior to a legislative study on state monitoring of data arising from wastewater injection wells.The examination is a consolidation of studies requested by state Rep. Cory Williams, D-Stillwater, and state Rep. Jason Murphey, R-Guthrie. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... People living in Groningen province will have to expect more and possibly more severe earthquakes because of natural gas extraction, the head of gas company NAM has told the NRC. 'If you realise the Groningen gas fields will still supply us for 50 more years, then there will be more and possibly more severe quakes caused by our gas extraction,? Bart van de Leemput told the paper. 'But in 20 years time we expect there will be fewer.? Earlier this year, experts calculated the risk of an earthquake of more than 4.1 on the Richter scale at 10%. On Tuesday, the region was hit by a quake measuring 2.8 on the Richter scale. The impact was unusually also felt in Groningen city. NAM has received more than 250 reports of damage, over 130 of which were in the city itself, the NRC said. MPs have called for a debate with economic affairs minister Henk Kamp about the earthquake threat. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Those who live in close proximity to fracking sites exhibited a greater likelihood to suffer skin and respiratory problems than those who lived farther away from natural gas wells, according to a new study of Pennsylvania?s Marcellus shale region. The study, “Proximity to Natural Gas Wells and Reported Health Status: Results of a Household Survey in Washington County, Pennsylvania,” published this week in Environmental Health Perspectives, found that people who reside within one kilometer of a hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, well were significantly more likely to endure ill health effects than those living two kilometers away. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Most of North America east of the Rocky Mountains has infrequent earthquakes. Here and there earthquakes are more numerous, for example in the New Madrid seismic zone centered on southeastern Missouri, in the Charlevoix-Kamouraska seismic zone of eastern Quebec, in New England, in the New York - Philadelphia - Wilmington urban corridor, and elsewhere. However, most of the enormous region from the Rockies to the Atlantic can go years without an earthquake large enough to be felt, and several U.S. states have never reported a damaging earthquake. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... People who live close to natural gas fracking wells were more likely to have skin and respiratory symptoms than those living farther away, according to a new Yale study. The study of natural gas hydraulic fracturing, often called “fracking,” was conducted in southwestern Pennsylvania, where “there were over 600 active natural gas wells in the county,” according to Dr. Peter Rabinowitz, formerly of Yale School of Medicine?s Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program and now an associate professor in the University of Washington?s School of Public Health. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Environmental Science: Processes and Impacts published the peer-reviewed study which analyzed water samples from three major shale plays in Texas, Pennsylvania and New Mexico. They found that although this byproduct of the fracking process is less toxic than produced water from coalbed methane mining, it shouldn?t be allowed anywhere near the drinking water supply. The study also revealed how the contents of this wastewater differs dramatically in the three states. These results could fuel the controversy about fracking near rivers, lakes, aquifers and wells, as well as the disposal of the wastewater. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The potentially massive impact of fracking on house prices was revealed yesterday ? with one woman saying the value of her home has been cut by ?535,000. Dianne Westgarth told how the price of her five-bedroom house had plummeted by over 70 per cent as a result of a proposed fracking site nearby. Read more: Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook ... (See internet for the rest!)

... (NaturalNews) Earlier this month, scientists presented groundbreaking research at the American Chemical Society's (ACS) 248th National Meeting and Exposition regarding the potential dangers of hydraulic fracking. The meeting featured nearly 12,000 presentations on a range of scientific topics. A team of researchers from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of the Pacific disclosed information they obtained from reviewing the contents used in the hydraulic fracking process. ... (See internet for the rest!)


... Environmental engineer William Stringfellow and colleagues at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of the Pacific told the American Chemical Society meeting in San Francisco that they scoured databases and reports to compile a list of the chemicals commonly used in fracking. Such additives, which are necessary for the extraction process, include: acids to dissolve minerals and open up cracks in the rock; biocides to kill bacteria and prevent corrosion; gels and other agents to keep the fluid at the right level of viscosity at different temperatures; substances to prevent clays from swelling or shifting; distillates to reduce friction; acids to limit the precipitation of metal oxides. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Two Railroad Commission hopefuls on Wednesday called the agency?s efforts to regulate wastewater disposal wells a good first step in addressing the spate of earthquakes that have shaken up parts of North Texas — a phenomenon that some suspect is linked to local disposal wells. But the candidates said the agency should do more to restore those communities? faith in its oversight. The comments came one day after the Railroad Commission offered rules that would require companies to submit additional information ? including data on a region?s seismicity and any past earthquakes ? when applying for a permit to drill a disposal well. The proposal also clarifies that the commission can slow or halt injections into a problematic well. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Dr. Anthony Ingraffea Ph.D., P.E., Cornell University & Tyson Slocum, Public Citizen's Energy Program ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) publicly released its report today finding that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is “not consistently conducting two key oversight and enforcement activities for class II programs” for underground fluid injection wells associated with oil and gas production. The report shows that the EPA?s program to protect drinking water sources from underground injection of fracking waste needs improvement. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A team of University of Colorado Boulder researchers began a seismic investigation after a May 31 earthquake. The researchers? information led the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission to request a 20-day halt to NGL Water Solutions? fracking wastewater injection operations. NGL, formerly known as High Sierra Water Services, was given permission to resume its activities at a 10,800-foot-deep well a few weeks later. Anne Sheehan and her team found that the well is linked to more than 200 earthquakes, the geophysics professor in the CU Department of Geological Sciences told Boulder County Business Report. NGL made modifications to the well, cementing the bottom 400 feet of the well, and it is has come back into production at a lower rate of pressure and injection. CU continues to monitor the earthquake activity and has found it has decreased. The information from the study will help the researchers find out why some wells have earthquakes and some do not, and how to fix the wells that do have earthquakes, if possible. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Unconventional oil and gas production provides a rapidly growing energy source; however, high-production states in the United States, such as Oklahoma, face sharply rising numbers of earthquakes. Subsurface pressure data required to unequivocally link earthquakes to wastewater injection are rarely accessible. Here we use seismicity and hydrogeological models to show that fluid migration from high-rate disposal wells in Oklahoma is potentially responsible for the largest swarm. Earthquake hypocenters occur within disposal formations and upper basement, between 2- and 5-kilometer depth. The modeled fluid pressure perturbation propagates throughout the same depth range and tracks earthquakes to distances of 35 kilometers, with a triggering threshold of ~0.07 megapascals. Although thousands of disposal wells operate aseismically, four of the highest-rate wells are capable of inducing 20% of 2008 to 2013 central U.S. seismicity. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Roy Grissom was lying in bed one morning in 2011 when his house in Oklahoma suddenly shook. Heavy concrete window sills ripped from the walls, pulling out chunks of brick as they fell. The older home?s foundation split and the plaster ceiling began to crack. The house shuddered again, and then again. Grissom never expected to feel an earthquake in Prague (pronounced “PRAY-geh”), a town of 2,500 people settled by Czech immigrants. “Fires or tornadoes, sure, but not an earthquake. Not in Oklahoma,” the former school superintendent told International Business Times. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A study published last week in the journal Science adds more detail to the already widely acknowledged finding that fracking leads to earthquakes. It's not the extraction of oil and gas that causes the tremors; it's the method of disposing the wastewater — a byproduct of hydraulic fracturing — that's to blame. During the process, huge quantities of water, sand and chemicals are injected into the ground to break up shale and allow drillers to access the fossil fuels trapped within. This toxic mix needs to go somewhere, and in many cases it is injected into disposal wells deep underground. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Oklahoma has had a whole lot of shaking going on during the last six years. Seismic activity in the state has risen dramatically, from just more than a dozen earthquakes recorded back in 2008 to more than 100 in 2013. And here we are only halfway through 2014, and already the number of Oklahoma quakes with a magnitude of 3.0 or higher has surpassed the number of such earthquakes in California—a state famous for its big temblors. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Just four wastewater wells in Oklahoma ? where energy companies dump water after completing the hydraulic fracturing process ? have caused scores of earthquakes this year, some 30 km from the site, according to a new study by top US universities. The report, published in Science magazine, focused on the Midwestern state, which has produced 45 percent of the country?s magnitude 3 or bigger seismic shocks in the past five years ? with the numbers rising rapidly to match the intensification of fracking activities in the area. While hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, ? which involves pressuring rock formations with liquid until they crack, and then extracting the oil and gas within ? poses an inherent risk of earthquakes, according to the authors, the biggest culprits were the wastewater wells, where the liquids used for fracking are pumped, once a reservoir is opened. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... More than 230 earthquakes with a magnitude greater than 3.0 have shaken the state of Oklahoma already this year. Before 2008 the state averaged one such quake a year. The surge in seismic activity has left residents and experts alike wondering about the underlying cause. Past research has shown that processes such as wastewater injection at oil drilling and fracking sites throughout the state could induce a small number of earthquakes but scientists have never been able to specifically link some of the more distant or stronger earthquakes with these sometimes faraway wastewater wells. That is, until now. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Four fracking wastewater wells near Oklahoma City have caused hundreds of earthquakes since 2008, a new study finds. The research offers the strongest link yet between the four massive injection wells, where wastewater is pumped underground for disposal, and the rapid rise in earthquakes in Oklahoma City. The findings were published today (July 3) in the journal Science Express. "It's pretty clear high-volume pumping is having an impact on the natural system," said study co-author Geoff Abers, a geophysicist at Cornell University in New York. "Modern waste disposal wells can trigger earthquakes." ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Thankfully, two earthquakes proved to be too many. The Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COOGC) has directed High Sierra Water Services to stop disposing wastewater into a Weld County injection well as a result of a 2.6 magnitude earthquake striking the area Monday morning, about five miles away from Greeley, CO, the Colorado Independent reported. The earthquake marked the second one in just one month. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... North Texas has the largest onshore natural gas field in the state, and some experts believe it may be the largest in the country. So when a swarm of earthquakes hit the cities of Azle and Reno beginning six months ago, local residents started asking questions. Scientists have linked the disposal of drilling wastewater used in fracking to earthquakes in Texas and other parts of the country. Now seismologists are studying the quakes in Parker and Tarrant Counties to monitor where the earthquakes occur, when and why. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... ANCHORAGE, Alaska — Fracking may cause earthquakes much farther from the sites of its wastewater wells than previously thought, researchers said here Friday (May 2) at the annual meeting of the Seismological Society of America. In central Oklahoma, a cluster of four high-volume wastewater injection wells triggered quakes up to 30 miles (about 50 kilometers) away, said lead study author Katie Keranen, a geophysicist at Cornell University in New York. The earthquakes have since spread farther outward, as fluids migrate farther from the massive injection wells, she said. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The Australian Medical Association says despite urging government to be cautious about the potential health impacts from coal seam gas projects, little is being done to address the issue. It's been 12 months since the AMA called on state and federal governments to ensure all CSG proposals are subject to rigorous and independent health risk assessments. Immediate past-President Dr Steve Hambleton says the industry continues to expand without any research or ongoing assessment of what the affects might be for human health. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... COAL seam gas mining is a potential threat to food and water security, say a group of medical researchers. And they caution the community cannot be sure CSG mining will not result in water contamination. A letter in the Medical Journal of Australia this week points to contamination of aquifers in the US and Australia due to CSG production. Monash University associate professor Marion Carey and two UNSW colleagues outline “real concerns” following a recent incident in NSW where elevated levels of heavy metals and uranium were found in groundwater next to a holding pond for water produced by a CSG operation. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... INDEPENDENT, cradle-to-grave assessments of the health and environmental impacts of unconventional gas extraction are urgently needed, says an expert on the health impacts of climate change. Dr Jeremy Moss [PhD], director of the University of Melbourne?s Social Justice Initiative, has called for on-the-ground epidemiological studies of these proposed new developments, particularly in light of examples of contamination highlighted in a letter to the MJA this week. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A group of researchers has raised concerns that coal seam gas operations present potential threats to food and water security. In a letter to the Medical Journal of Australia, Monash University's Adjunct Professor Marion Carey referred to an incident where groundwater near a coal seam gas operation was found to have elevated levels of heavy metals and uranium. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A midwife in Vernal, Utah, has raised a red flag about a spike in the number of stillbirths and neonatal deaths in the small town in 2013. The concern has arisen alongside explosive growth in drilling and fracking in the area. Energy companies have flocked to Vernal in the last few years to develop massive oil and gas fields beneath Uintah County. The midwife, Donna Young, who has worked in the Vernal area for 19 years, delivered the first stillborn baby she's seen in all her years of practice in May 2013. Doctors could not determine a reason for the baby's death. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... More than six months after a series of earthquakes surprised parts of North Texas, the mayors of two shaken-up towns say that the state has moved too slowly in investigating what?s behind the phenomenon and whether local oil and gas activities are to blame. “If I could sum up our experience in one word, it would be frustration,” Azle Mayor Alan Brundrett said Monday at the first meeting of the Texas House Subcommittee on Seismic Activity. “While everyone seemed genuinely concerned, there is a disconnect between various stakeholders.” Lynda Stokes, mayor of neighboring Reno, said her town?s major concerns are "getting lost in politics.” ... (See internet for the rest!)

... These can be shaky times for Texas. The number of recorded earthquakes (most larger than 3.0) has increased tenfold since a drilling boom began several years ago. The Lone Star State is now one of the shakiest in the country, coming in sixth in the continuous U.S. for having larger quakes last year, according to EnergyWire. Today, lawmakers will hold a meeting at the Capitol to look into the onset of quakes and their possible connection to oil and gas drilling. (It starts at 1 p.m. Central, and you can watch it online.) ... (See internet for the rest!)

... North Texas is no longer a place you can expect to live earthquake-free. That?s the big takeaway from a progress report out this week from Southern Methodist University on their study of tremors around the towns of Reno and Azle that began last fall. “This sequence, with the first felt event [earthquake] occurring in November 2013, follows several other earthquakes sequences of earthquakes occurring in Tarrant and Johnson Counties since 2008,” the report says. A team of scientists from SMU, with help from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), installed monitors to better measure the quakes in region. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Colorado, Texas and Oklahoma aren't known for earthquakes, but that?s changing thanks to hydraulic fracking. Fracking-triggered earthquakes may become stronger and more frequent as the wastewater is injected underground, according to new research. Enormous amounts of wastewater are produced from the fracking process, and underground injection of wastewater is the most commonly used disposal technique. Each time a new well is fracked, the stakes grow higher. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Underground disposal of wastewater from fracking may pose a much greater risk of causing dangerous earthquakes than previously believed, particularly in areas of the U.S. Southwest and Midwest where earthquake faults have not been mapped extensively, seismology researchers said at a conference Thursday. Worse yet, scientists are not yet able to predict which wastewater injection sites are likely to pose risks to buildings or critical structures such as power plants, and do not yet know what operators might do to mitigate the hazard. And new research indicates that the disposal wells are capable of affecting earthquake faults that are miles away from them. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. - Oil and gas development activities, including underground disposal of wastewater and hydraulic fracturing, may induce earthquakes by changing the state of stress on existing faults to the point of failure. Earthquakes from wastewater disposal may be triggered at tens of kilometers from the wellbore, which is a greater range than previously thought, according to research to be presented today at the annual meeting of the Seismological Society of America (SSA). As an indication of the growing significance of man-made earthquakes on seismic hazard, SSA annual meeting will feature a special session to discuss new research findings and approaches to incorporating induced seismicity into seismic hazard assessments and maps. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A series of earthquakes up to magnitude 3.0 struck on March 1o-11 in Mahoning County near the Ohio-Pennsylvania border. A nearby Utica oil well was being fracked at the time of the quakes, leading ODNR shut down the operation until a possible link could be investigated further. This is now the fourth documented case of induced seismicity linked to fracking, and the latest in a series of earthquakes in Ohio caused by oil and gas production activities. The earlier quakes resulted from disposal of waste water into underground injection wells. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A move by Ohio regulators last week to tighten permits around hydraulic fracturing—so-called fracking—could amplify the debate between energy industry interests and environmentalists over the gas drilling technique. In a carefully worded decision Friday, Ohio's Department of Natural Resources for the first time drew a tentative link between gas drilling and an uptick in local quakes. Studies previously had linked only the disposal of fracking wastewater to earthquakes, not the act of fracking itself. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... State geologists in Ohio have for the first time linked earthquakes in a geologic formation deep under the Appalachians to gas drilling, leading the state to issue new permit conditions in certain areas that are among the nation's strictest. A state investigation of five small tremors in the Youngstown area, in the Appalachian foothills, last month has found the high-pressure injection of sand and water that accompanies hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, in the Utica Shale may have increased pressure on a small, unknown fault, said State Oil & Gas Chief Rick Simmers. He called the link "probable." ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Whether or not fracking causes groundwater pollution, people fear the risk enough that property values have dropped for homes with drinking-water wells near shale-gas pads, according to new research. Researchers from the Unviersity of Calgary and Duke University studied property sales from 1994 to 2012 in 36 Pennsylvania counties and seven counties in New York. They mapped sales against the locations of shale-gas wells, and they compared homes connected to public drinking-water systems to homes with private wells. Properties with private wells suffered a loss in value compared to properties connected to a municipal water system, they found, offsetting gains in value from mineral-rights royalties. The loss varied with distance from the nearest shale-gas well. At 1.5 kilometers, properties with private wells sold for about 10 percent less. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A number of potential impacts from shale gas development have been identified over the past few years. They range from increased job opportunities and revenue generation for state and local jurisdictions, for example, on the positive side, to concerns over surface and groundwater pollution, air quality, public health, increased vehicle congestion and accidents, and more, on the negative side. Ultimately, communities in close proximity to shale development are the most likely to experience such impacts. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... WHEELING - Breathing only a tiny amount of silica dust per day - enough, roughly, to cover Franklin Delano Roosevelt's nose on a dime - can put a worker at risk for myriad health problems, according to Michael Breitenstein of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Research by his agency, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, shows many workers at natural gas wells where hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, takes place are being exposed to the substance in much higher quantities. And according to West Virginia University professor Michael McCawley, the Northern Panhandle of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania - at the heart of Marcellus Shale gas development - are seeing some of the nation's highest rates of mortality due to silicosis, a disease that hardens the lungs through inflammation and development of scar tissue. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... For the first time, members of Congress today called upon U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Gina McCarthy to “investigate and address the water contamination” in Dimock, PA, in Parker County, TX, and in Pavillion, WY. In all three communities, the EPA has previously withdrawn investigations into water contamination and stopped providing affected residents with clean drinking water. Eight Representatives, led by Rep. Matt Cartwright (PA-17), made the request in a letter to Administrator McCarthy. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... As gas company Metgasco attempt to drill another well in Lismore's water catchment area, 850+ concerned locals packed the Lismore Workers Club to hear Dr Mariann Lloyd-Smith deliver another powerful and compelling presentation on the effects of chemical usage by the Unconventional Gas industry. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Congressman Jared Polis saw this firsthand last fall when a drilling rig went up on property neighboring his small farm in Weld County, Colorado. Polis, who said he had no notice of the fracking operations, filed a complaint with state regulators and then a lawsuit over concerns “about the impact that fracking has on the health of communities as well as the economic impact as it relates to property value.” ... (See internet for the rest!)

... While geologists raised questions yesterday about whether a northeastern Ohio fracking operation caused a series of earthquakes in Mahoning County on Monday, state officials refused to provide any answers. On Monday, Ohio Department of Natural Resources officials ordered Texas-based Hilcorp Energy to shut down an active well at the Carbon Limestone Landfill near Lowellville after four temblors were recorded in the area. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Ohio officials shut down several wells after a pair of earthquakes. How much of a role does hydraulic fracturing play in the startling rise of quakes in the middle of the U.S.? The mystery over the possible connection between hydraulic fracturing and earthquakes deepened on Mar. 10, when the Ohio government ordered a halt to operations at seven oil and gas wells near the Pennsylvania border after two quakes occurred earlier that day. While the quakes in Ohio?s Poland Township were too small to cause damage or injuries—they measured in at 2.6 and 3.0 on the Richter scale—the fact that one of the wells was undergoing fracking at the time of the quakes was enough for the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR) to suspend drilling operations in the area. “The decision was made out of an abundance of caution after analyzing location and magnitude data provided by the U.S. Geological Services” ODNR spokesman Mark Bruce said in an emailed statement. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Health advocacy organisation, Doctors for the Environment Australia (DEA) is alarmed by water contamination in an aquifer associated with a Santos coal seam gas project in the Pilliga Forest, NSW. A NSW EPA investigation found that storage facilities for contaminated water produced by the CSG mining project were inadequate, and that there was no evidence the necessary testing and quality controls occurred. Levels of heavy metals and radioactive substances are reported to be elevated in a nearby aquifer, with uranium levels well above Australian drinking water guidelines. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... One of Oklahoma's biggest man-made earthquakes, caused by fracking-linked wastewater injection, triggered an earthquake cascade that led to the damaging magnitude-5.7 Prague quake that struck on Nov. 6, 2011, a new study confirms. The findings suggest that even small man-made earthquakes, such as those of just a magnitude 1 or magnitude 2, can trigger damaging quakes, said study co-author Elizabeth Cochran, a seismologist with the U.S. Geological Survey. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Uncertainties about the health implications of unconventional gas production should be a factor in putting the brakes on the industry in Australia, say researchers in the Medical Journal of Australia. The absence of concrete evidence of harm does not mean there is no harm and an attitude of precaution, just like when testing a new drug, should be adopted, the medical reseachers say. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... What if negative publicity around pipelines gets as big as around fracking? Given the many recent high-profile pipeline accidents, that may already be happening. What happens to pipeline companies? own insurance then? What happens to your homeowner or farm insurance? ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The coalition government has decided that more than half of Britain and two-thirds of England will be open to fracking despite compelling evidence the process may cause serious environmental, health and structural damage. But now it seems insurers are starting to refuse to insure home owners against the affects of the damage ? which can include flooding, earthquakes, land slips, sink holes and other serious problems. Here?s the experience of one home owner who was recently refused coverage by two insurance companies from the possible affects of fracking: ... (See internet for the rest!)

... WELLS home owners might receive a shock when they come to insure their homes in the future. Alan Hudson, 56, of Priory Place, has been refused home insurance by two different companies because he was in a potential fracking area. Mr Hudson said: “My NatWest policy was up for renewal so I thought I would email a variety of companies asking about insuring my home against fracking. “I explained that I needed a standard home and contents policy which will also cover me for any damage incurred by fracking. “I was shocked when both Legal and General, which is a huge company, and Hiscox both said they could not insure me for damage caused by fracking ? Legal and General wouldn?t insure my house at all.” ... (See internet for the rest!)

... In Texas, Oklahoma, Ohio and other states, people who have rarely experienced earthquakes in the past are getting used to them as a fairly common phenomenon. This dramatic uptick in tremors is related to drilling for oil and natural gas, several reports find. And the growing popularity of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is in part to blame. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Dr. Elizabeth Cochran discusses research showing that injection wells from fracking and gas and oil production is likely causing an uptick in U.S. earthquakes Many of us are familiar with the term?hydraulic fracturing, or commonly known as fracking. But less known is how scientists have linked it to earthquakes. It's become so prevalent in places like Oklahoma that the seismic activity has a name of its own--frackquake.But what's the correlation between earthquakes and tracking? Seismologist researchers from the University of Oklahoma say that it is the disposal of waste water in the form of fluid injections and underground disposal wells, which are common practices in fracking and other unconventional oil and gas production. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... According to a study performed in 2001 in Colorado, properties located near fracking areas were prone to loss of value. They were around 18% cheaper than those found further away from oil wells. In fact, the greater the distance between real estate and an oil well, the higher the price. It shows that folks don?t want or need to live in an area full of noise and pollution. The Colorado School of Public Health claimed that property value decreased during the stages of construction because of natural gas extraction. Other influencing factors are dust, smoke, and traffic. Buyers and sellers are not currently active in areas which are at risk of water and air contamination. The value of housing in Pennsylvania plummeted 80% in 2011. The only group that benefited from the plunge was Chesapeake Energy, a local drilling company. They were able to acquire more land for fracking purposes. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Injection wells from fracking production are more than likely the cause for the increase of earthquakes in the US, according to one seismologist?s findings. The activity has become so lively in Oklahoma, it is being called a frackquake. In all reality, the question pops up time and time again about how scientists are making a link between fracking and earthquake activity. Dr. Elizabeth Cochran is a seismologist with the US Geological Survey in Pasadena, California and has done research on the topic. She, alongside a team of other scientists from the University of Oklahoma explored this issue in-depth. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... House damage in central Oklahoma from the magnitude 5.6 earthquake in 2011.Research conducted by U.S. Geological Survey geophysicists suggests it was induced by injection into deep disposal wells in the Wilzetta North field. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Killer tornadoes, sizzling summers, treacherous ice storms. Barbara Scott was prepared for all that and more when she moved from Denver to Bluff City, Kan., a half dozen years ago. But earthquakes? In Kansas? "It's like the earth just rolled under my house, raised it up and lowered it down," she said of the quake that struck last month between Bluff City and Caldwell. Further rattling Scott was the possibility that the earthquake was man-made, a byproduct of our lust for energy. "We thought it might be the fracking," she said. "We have so much of that going on down here." Kansas is one of five states least likely to experience earthquake damage, state officials say. The worst on record was of 5.5 magnitude in 1867 near Manhattan. ... Fracking itself is not thought to cause quakes that people can feel. But scientists and the energy industry do agree that seismic activity can be induced when millions of gallons of wastewater from hydraulic fracturing operations are injected into the kind of disposal wells that are being used by oil and gas companies in the Bluff City area. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Want frackers to pay up for poisoning your water ? Tell them to sue their insurance carrier to cover it. That?s what an Ohio fracker is doing after their liability insurance carrier balked at paying a claim made by a homeowner that got fracked. Beth Radow is going to address the impacts of fracking on homeowners? mortgages and insurance coverage at the Senate forum on the economic impacts of fracking at Albany on Feb 4th. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The earthquakes you may have heard about—the 30 tremblers that have struck north central Texas since Nov. 1 and have damaged many homes. The quakes are most likely being caused by underground disposal wells used to get rid of wastewater generated during fracking operations. “Frackquakes,” some are calling them. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A series of small earthquakes in Cleburne in 2009 and 2010 could have been caused by the oil and gas industry injecting wastewater into the ground, according to a study released by Southern Methodist University on Tuesday. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... After being rocked by more than 30 earthquakes in the last two months, a busload of North Texans headed to Austin this week. They spoke at a Texas Railroad Commission hearing, urging state officials to shut down two disposal wells, part of the oil and gas drilling business. The Parker County residents suspect those wells are playing a role in the swarm of quakes a half-hour northwest of Fort Worth. One of the group?s leaders, Reno Mayor Linda Stokes, is the subject of this week?s Friday Conversation. ... (See internet for the rest!)


... FORTUNE — In a small patch northwest of Fort Worth, Texas — where the Barnett Shale set off the decade-long “fracking” boom that?s moved the U.S. closer to energy independence — there?s a surprising uprising brewing over drilling for natural gas. Energy-friendly Texas is now dealing with earthquakes. Since Nov. 1, more than 30 small temblors have struck the rural area around Azle (pop. 11,000), and many residents are blaming the quakes on underground disposal wells, used to get rid of wastewater generated during the fracking and production process. Drillers inject the salty wastewater into wells a mile or two deep. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... There have been more than 30 small earthquakes in and around the north Texas town of Azle in the last three months. The residents there think it?s because of fracking. “They haven?t had earthquakes around here for 100 years, and to have this happen now — 32 within just the last couple of months — is crazy,” Darla Hobbs, an Azle resident, told NBC news. “And it?s not our fault for living here. It?s the gas well industry for drilling, and fracking, and the injection wells.” Their claims are not unfounded. Researchers at Southern Methodist University have recently linked a string of 2009 and 2010 earthquakes in Texas to the injection of fracking wastewater into the ground. The U.S. Geological Survey says that the wastewater injection process — which lets fracking companies dispose of wastewater by storing it wells underground — can help cause of earthquakes by reducing underground friction along seismic faults. In early 2013, fracking wastewater disposal was also linked to the 109 earthquakes that shook Youngstown, Ohio in 2011 — an area that hadn?t ever experienced an earthquake before an injection well came online in December 2010. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Questions continue to swirl around the rash of earthquakes in the small farming town of Azle.An official with the Texas Railroad Commission, which regulates oil and gas drilling, testified Tuesday that in November the agency had found an injection well near Azle with unusually high pressure and the well had since been shut down.Injection wells are drilled deep underground to store waste fluids associated with oil and gas drilling. They have been linked to earthquake activity by scientists for decades.The agency began inspecting wells within 15 miles of the center of the seismic activity in November, said Ramon Fernandez, deputy director of the Oil and Gas Division. Since Nov. 5, the area around Azle has registered more than 30 earthquakes, according to the U.S. Geological Survey.“All the wells had zero pressure, except for one,” Fernandez said. “We found there was pressure and sent a violation letter. We went back out Jan. 2, and the well was shut in ? they?re still [fixing] it.” ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The number of earthquakes has increased dramatically over the past few years within the central and eastern United States. Nearly 450 earthquakes magnitude 3.0 and larger occurred in the four years from 2010-2013, over 100 per year on average, compared with an average rate of 20 earthquakes per year observed from 1970-2000. This increase in earthquakes prompts two important questions: Are they natural, or man-made? And what should be done in the future as we address the causes and consequences of these events to reduce associated risks? USGS scientists have been analyzing the changes in the rate of earthquakes as well as the likely causes, and they have some answers. USGS scientists have found that at some locations the increase in seismicity coincides with the injection of wastewater in deep disposal wells. Much of this wastewater is a byproduct of oil and gas production and is routinely disposed of by injection into wells specifically designed for this purpose. ... (See internet for the rest!)


... On 17 May at 0812 UTC a MW-RMT4.8 earthquake occurred near Timpson, Texas. The quake awoke numerous residents of Nacogdoches, Texas, 50 km to the southwest of Timpson and caused significant damage to chimneys, fireplaces, and brick veneer siding 5 km southwest of Timpson. The 17 May earthquake is the largest earthquake in the historical record in East Texas (Figure 1). This paper discusses this earthquake and the sequence of preshocks and aftershocks, including an MW-RMT4.0 foreshock on 10 May 2012 at 1515 UTC and aftershocks occurring on 25 January 2013 at 701 UTC (mbLg4.1) and 2 September 2013 at 1652 (mbLg4.1) and 1851 (MW-RMT4.3). ... (See internet for the rest!)

... In Romania, a village has already been destroyed by fracking. It was done all in secret and only the series of shallow earthquakes that started at the end of 2013 made us aware that there is something wrong there. Further more, the authorities have clumsily tried to present the case of Izvoarele as if it was some very special case of seismicity, by inviting Japanese earthquake specialists. Meanwhile, in the village all the occurences connected to fracking started appearing: the water has been contaminated (the people receive very little quantities of bottled water), the birds and animals are dying, sinkholes are appearing. And of course, due to the earthquakes, some houses are badly damaged. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Earthquakes attributable to human activities are called induced seismic events or induced earthquakes. In the past several years induced seismic events related to energy development projects have drawn heightened public attention. Although only a very small fraction of injection and extraction activities at hundreds of thousands of energy development sites in the United States have induced seismicity at levels that are noticeable to the public, seismic events caused by or likely related to energy development have been measured and felt in Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Texas. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Most homeowners did not know about the dangers of hydrofracking when they signed a gas lease and are only now finding out that most home mortgage loans prohibit the types of heavy industrial activity and hazardous materials that come with fracking. Take the case of Brian Smith of Daisytown, PA??who in May 2012 was unable to refinance his home and was told by his lender, “While Quicken Loans makes every effort to help its clients reach their homeownership goals, like every lender, we are ultimately bound by very specific underwriting guidelines. In some cases conditions exist, such as gas wells and other structures in nearby lots that can significantly degrade a property?s value. In these cases, we are unable to extend financing due to the unknown future marketability of the property.”?New research indicates that the vast majority of prospective buyers say they would decline to buy a home near oil and gas drilling.? ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Today, instead of golf carts and fairways, Gless looks out on to drilling wells and oil pads. The park plan was ditched, and Freeport-McMoRan Oil & Gas LLC now operates 700 wells there - and 400 more are on the way. All the drilling, Gless says, has caused house foundations to crack and swimming pools to start to slide down hills. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Researchers at Southern Methodist University have linked a string of 2009 and 2010 earthquakes in Texas to the injection of fracking wastewater into the ground, according to a new study. The researchers examined the group of more than 50 earthquakes that hit the area of Cleburne, Texas in 2009 and 2010, and found that they could have happened because of wastewater injection wells associated with fracking operations. Before 2008, the Fort Worth Basin of Texas had never experienced an earthquake. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... About 20 earthquakes jolted North Texas in November -- and they keep hitting Parker County and parts of Tarrant County in December. This follows dozens of small earthquakes that have hit parts of North Texas in recent years. What?s causing all of the quakes? Some point to natural gas well drilling -- and the use of disposal wells to store wastewater from the drilling. There?s been a gas drilling boom in the Barnett Shale, a massive geological formation that covers about 20 North Texas counties. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Over the past several years, the fossil-fuel industry has been highly adept at publicizing the economic upshots of fracking: royalty checks, decreased prices for oil and gas, profits for investors. But the industry is far less eager to discuss the hidden costs of the current drilling boom ? the longterm price of air and water pollution, the consequences of undermining a nascent renewable energy industry, the harms from accidents when moving and storing all the hazardous waste fracking produces. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Add to that list of hidden costs one that is starting to grab more attention from bankers and the real estate industry: property values and mortgage problems. New research, for example, demonstrates that the vast majority of prospective buyers say they would decline to buy a home near oil and gas drilling. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... From his office a few feet below the earth's surface - a basement at the University of Oklahoma in Norman - Holland, who tracks quakes for the Oklahoma Geological Survey, is digging into a complex riddle: Is a dramatic rise in the size and number of quakes in his state related to oil and gas production activity? And, if so, what can be done to stop it? As part of his wide-ranging research, Holland is proposing to inject pressurized water into porous rock in an area already known to be earthquake-prone, to see whether injections of oil industry wastewater are contributing to a "swarm" of earthquakes rocking the state. "This is a dramatic new rate of seismicity," Holland said in an interview. "We can't guarantee the earthquakes aren't a coincidence (unrelated to oil and gas work)," he said. "But it would be a pretty remarkable coincidence." ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Fears over the potential health implications of hydraulic fracturing led over 100 medical practitioners to request the Obama administration to halt the construction of new liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals on the basis that “[t]here is a growing body of evidence that unconventional natural gas extraction from shale . . . may be associated with adverse health risks through exposure to polluted air, water, and soil”.2 There are also environmental, social and psychological factors that have more indirect effects on health, and important social justice implications arising from the distribution of health burdens. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Drilling conflicts are almost always described in the context of their impacts on air, water and health. But increasingly, as the drilling boom sweeps the country, another part of the drilling story is starting to bubble up in drilling hotspots like Colorado, Pennsylvania, New York, Wyoming and Texas. Increasingly, oil and gas development is butting up against, and often trampling, the bedrock American principles of property rights and the value of one?s home. The map below shows all the shale gas in play in North America. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Drilling conflicts are almost always described in the context of their impacts on air, water and health. But increasingly, as the drilling boom sweeps the country, another part of the drilling story is starting to bubble up in drilling hotspots like Colorado, Pennsylvania, New York, Wyoming and Texas. Increasingly, oil and gas development is butting up against, and often trampling, the bedrock American principles of property rights and the value of one?s home. The map below shows all the shale gas in play in North America. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Jem investigates the controversial science of fracking, blamed for creating an earthquake in Lancashire. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A study led by Frohlich of a swarm of quakes in North Texas points the finger at oil and gas wastewater disposal wells, where large volumes of dirty water left over from oil and gas drilling are disposed of deep underground. “Because there were no known previous earthquakes, and the located events were close to the two injection wells and near the injection depth, the possibility exists that earthquakes may be related to fluid injection,” the study says. ... (See internet for the rest!)


... Honeybees' ability to find flowers could be hampered by a chemical in diesel exhaust, say scientists. Tests showed that exhaust degraded some floral scent chemicals the bees "home in on" when they are foraging. The study, published in Scientific Reports, also revealed that a specific group of chemicals found in diesel exhaust, known as NOx, diminished the insects' response to floral scents. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Bees? foraging for flowers 'hampered by diesel exhaust? By Victoria Gill Science reporter, BBC News The study, published in Scientific Reports, also revealed that a specific group of chemicals found in diesel exhaust, known as NOx, diminished the insects? response to floral scents. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A series of what are believed to be earthquakes were recently registered in the Romanian county of Galati. More than 11 small earthquakes took place in several villages in the Galati county, but specialists are yet unsure whether these were earthquakes or some other kind of phenomena. Specialists from the Institute of Earth Physics have installed measuring equipment in the Slobozia Conachi ? Izvoarele area, where the earthquakes had the highest intensity. Data is expected to come in two weeks. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... In an attempt to help the country become less oil dependent on other countries, an increasing number of homeowners are finding out that they can?t always depend on their homeowners insurance when experiencing losses that occur as a result of hydraulic fracturing — aka fracking — on their property. Worst of all though, some homeowners can find themselves liable for any unwanted aftermath of fracking, such as water contamination. What ? if any ? coverage does homeowners insurance offer that would cover this? ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A resident of St. Anne's, in the Fylde district of Lancashire, England, recently reported on the trouble he was having finding a home insurance provider willing to cover the risks associated with hydraulic fracturing, which is proposed for his area. Here is an excerpt: "My brokers have made enquiries of nearly 300 insurance companies, either by telephoning them directly, or via email. The vast majority are treating this as an 'Excluded Peril? and are not prepared to cover the risk under any circumstances, even if the risk was shared by the policyholder by increasing the voluntary excess. However, they have found one company, Royal, Sun Alliance, who are prepared to underwrite the risk. However, in order to facilitate this, they have increased my premium by 19.4%." ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Wastewater from the controversial practice of fracking appears to be linked to all the earthquakes in a town in Ohio that had no known past quakes, research now reveals.The practice of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, involves injecting water, sand and other materials under high pressures into a well to fracture rock. This opens up fissures that help oil and natural gas flow out more freely. This process generates wastewater that is often pumped underground as well, in order to get rid of it. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... An Examination of the Insurance Issues Associated with Hydro-Fracking, a white paper published by the law firm Nelson Levine de Luca & Hamilton (see graphic above), provides an in-depth examination of the insurance and liability issues related to hydraulic fracking, to aid insurers in assessing the potential risks. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... It's a common complaint these days: government regulations have gotten out of hand (seehere?and?here), they're?stifling the American economy,?"killing economic growth."Generalities like those are hard to refute, or prove for that matter. So let's take a look at specific regulations which were designed to protect the public from injection wells used to dispose of fracking wastes ... but because they weren't comprehensive, when it came to earthquakes, they were no better than, well, no regulation. Youngstown Earthquakes In 2011, from March to November, nine small earthquakes were reported in and around Youngstown, Ohio. That's more than one earthquake per month. All were of 2.7?magnitude(Mw) or less. Given that prior to 2011, no earthquakes centered in the area had been recorded, something unusual seemed to be going on. Some speculated that maybe the proximity of the quakes to a deep injection well -- a Class II well?used to dispose of fracking waste water [pdf]?(there are?144,000 [pdf]?Class II wells?in the United States) --?might be the culprit. After all, all nine quakes?had occurred within a one-mile radius of the well [pdf]and injection wells?in Texas?and?Arkansas?had been linked to similar bouts of seismicity. (There's also that?USGS study from last year?that reported a significant uptick in the number of minor earthquakes in the United States in recent years.) ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A not-so-new fracking nightmare has been exposed. A new curse has arrived to torment home and property owners who allow fracking on their properties. The curse even extends to those who live near fracking operations. Insurance companies refuse insurance and lenders turn down property loans when fracking is involved with a property. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Fracking Chemical Cocktail?s luscious image works well in Los Angeles. Far from being an apologist for the environmental catastrophes that fracking causes, she delights in divulging her true aims: fracking everyone she can get her drills into including, according to recent revelations, secret fracking in the Santa Barbara Channel that has caused an outrage.

Frackie fobbed off those questions and delighted in discussing all the benefits of fracking including accelerated global warming. “We can have sweater weather in the winter,” Frackie chirped. “And all that fresh pure glacier water!”

That is not going to be good news for Southern California which has been found to be the Saudi Arabia of shale oil and gas now recoverable using new, and environmentally disastrous, fracking techniques. has found that a little known new threat posed by fracking is slowly becoming known in addition to the already established menaces of groundwater contamination, huge water usage, methane gas releases and fracking induced earthquakes.

Fracking also threatens the very value and marketability of real estate, so much so that major insurance companies are not renewing homeowner insurance policies on properties that have been fracked or are near fracking. Lenders will not loan money on property that has potential for hazardous activity and contamination issues meaning that the land owner is truly fracked. The land becomes uninsurable and unsellable making it worthless. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Why is the hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, method of drilling for natural gas and oil seemingly exempt from unintended consequences such as soil, water and air pollution, water waste and earthquakes, among other really bad things? No need to answer that, but here?s another alarming outcome of fracking that could hit close to home, especially if your home is in Bradford County, PA, where 93 percent of the acreage is under lease to a gas company. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A study led by Florich found that a series of quakes in the drilling region of South Texas (including a magnitude 4.8 in October 2011) were linked to oil and gas extraction and wastewater disposal. “In this region, while the majority of small earthquakes may be triggered/induced by human activity, they are more often associated with ?uid extraction than with injection,” the study says. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A study by Wei Gan of the China University of Geosciences and Frochlich found that the injection of carbon dioxide to enhance oil recovery in the Cogdell oil field of West Texas (north of Snyder) were likely responsible for a string of earthquakes there, including a 4.4 magnitude quake in September 2011. “If this triggered the 2006-2011 seismicity, this represents an instance where gas injection has triggered earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and larger,” the study reads. This could have implications for a strategy to deal with climate change known as carbon capture and storage, where CO2 in the atmosphere would be collected and deposited in formations ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A couple of days ago, we raised the issue of house insurance for residents living in fracking areas. Our item, Homeowners ? fracking damage is now an “excluded peril” from buildings insurance policies was supplied by a local resident who lives in St Annes, and who had been making enquiries into whether or not he could get house insurance that would cover damage caused by fracking. He wasn?t having much success. Below is his update. Further to my post a few days ago regarding property insurance and potential damage caused by fracking, I have some further news. My brokers have made enquiries of nearly 300 insurance companies, either by telephoning them directly, or via email. The vast majority are treating this as an 'Excluded Peril? and are not prepared to cover the risk under any circumstances, even if the risk was shared by the policyholder by increasing the voluntary excess. However, they have found one company, Royal, Sun Alliance, who are prepared to underwrite the risk. However, in order to facilitate this, they have increased my premium by 19.4%. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... "... Further to my post a few days ago regarding property insurance and potential damage caused by fracking, I have some further news. My brokers have made enquiries of nearly300 insurance companies, either by telephoning them directly, or via email. The vast majority are treating this as an 'Excluded Peril? and are not prepared to cover the risk under any circumstances, even if the risk was shared by the policyholder by increasing the voluntary excess. However, they have found one company, Royal, Sun Alliance, who are prepared to underwrite the risk. However, in order to facilitate this, they have increased my premium by 19.4%. .." ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Water Source a Deciding Factor in Property Value A Duke University and Resources for the Future study found that the most significant factor in the impact of oil and gas development near residential property is whether water is piped in or sourced on-site from a well. Based in Washington County, PA, the study found that property with on-site wells lost 13 percent of their value. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A?new study?out in?Science?by US Geological Survey scientist William Ellsworth links earthquakes to wastewater injection sites. These earthquakes, thought to be caused by pressure changes due to excess fluid injected deep below the surface, are being dubbed "man-made" earthquakes. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Human-induced earthquakes have become an important topic of political and scientific discussion, owing to the concern that these events may be responsible for widespread damage and an overall increase in seismicity. It has long been known that impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations are capable of inducing earthquakes. In particular, earthquakes caused by injection have become a focal point, as new drilling and well-completion technologies enable the extraction of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The headlines were clear: fracking causes earthquakes. Yesterday an important study came out in Science that found a strong link between the injection of wastewater into deep underground wells and nearby earthquakes. Hydraulic fracturing—used in the process of developing shale gas and oil wells—also involves pumping millions of gallons of water and chemicals underground, in an effort to essentially pry fossil fuels out of tight layers of rock. Therefore, fracking causes quakes. Right? ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Two new studies of earthquakes near injection wells have seismologists using words rarely heard these days in earthquake science: prediction and warning. The research has also renewed calls for better seismic monitoring and reporting in regions experiencing man-made earthquakes. "Shale gas operations have completely changed our energy policy and people are injecting in places they've never injected before. If we're going to do this safely, we need to address the environmental issues, including protecting water supplies and earthquake risk," said Cliff Frohlich, a seismologist at the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics who was not involved in the new studies. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The last tremor, registering 3.0 on the Richter scale, hit the nearby village of Garrelsweer late on Tuesday night and rocked a dyke holding back the North Sea - fuelling fears that gas extraction could lead to major earthquake disaster in Holland. "It was like a tractor crashing into my house," said Elly Broekmans, who suffered extensive damage to her property including widening cracks in structural walls. The government and the consortium responsible for the drilling concede that the earthquakes are caused by the extraction of natural gas from shale rocks deep below the Groningen region, where there are up 1,800 natural faults in the porous Rotliegend sandstone subsurface. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Early scientific analysis predicted that the risks associated with hazardous waste injection wells would be negligible. Unfortunately, experience has indicated that disposing of hazardous waste deep underground has been linked to water contamination, destroyed ecosystems, toxic leaks and earthquakes. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Pavillion-area citizens, landowners and environmental groups today condemned Gov. Mead?s (R-WY) announcement that the state is assuming control from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the investigation into groundwater contamination by fracking-enabled oil and gas development near Pavillion, WY. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Gas mining has traditionally used a limited number of wells in unpopulated areas to extract gas from naturally formed underground reservoirs. In contrast, “unconventional” mining for gas from coal seams, shale, and tight sands can involve thousands of wells spread across populated areas, and the horizontal drilling, fracturing, and depressurising of gas-bearing strata.2 All forms of unconventional gas mining share a common technology and involve the use and liberation of similar dangerous substances. Mining for Coal Seam Gas (CSG) and other forms of unconventional gas is an unprecedented threat to our community. Australians have never before faced the prospect of living and raising children amidst heavily industrialised gas fields - in landscapes dominated by gas wells, pipes, flares, busy roads, wastewater ponds, and pumping and compression stations. Entire communities are being exposed to a myriad of psychological and social stresses, and a witch?s brew of air, water, and soil contaminants. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... An ongoing earthquake swarm in New Mexico and Colorado, which includes Colorado's largest earthquake since 1967, is due to underground wastewater injection, researchers said Friday (April 19) at the Seismological Society of America's annual meeting in Salt Lake City. The earthquakes are concentrated near wastewater injection wells in the Raton Basin, where mining companies are extracting methane from coalbeds. The basin, which is actually a series of rock layers exposed in the Rocky Mountain foothills, stretches from northeastern New Mexico to southern Colorado. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The Queensland Government?s investigation into the impacts of coal seam gas in the Tara region dismisses pollution and is not a comprehensive health study. The study shouldn?t be used by government or industry to claim 'a clean bill of health? for the CSG industry in Tara, or any other CSG field for that matter. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... AT EXACTLY 10:53 P.M. on Saturday, November 5, 2011, Joe and Mary Reneau were in the bedroom of their whitewashed and brick-trimmed home, a two-story rambler Mary's dad custom-built 43 years ago. Their property encompasses 440 acres of rolling grasslands in Prague, Oklahoma (population 2,400), located 50 miles east of Oklahoma City. When I arrive at their ranch almost a year later on a bright fall morning, Joe is wearing a short-sleeve shirt and jeans held up by navy blue suspenders, and is wedged into a metal chair on his front stoop sipping black coffee from a heavy mug. His German shepherd, Shotzie, is curled at his feet. Joe greets me with a crushing handshake—he is 200 pounds, silver-haired and 6 feet tall, with thick forearms and meaty hands—and invites me inside. He served in Vietnam, did two tours totaling nine years with the Defense Intelligence Agency, and then, in 1984, retired a lieutenant colonel from the US Army to sell real estate and raise cattle. Today, the livestock are gone and Joe calls himself "semiretired" because "we still cut hay in the summers." ... (See internet for the rest!)

... In November 2011, a destructive 5.7-magnitude earthquake rocked the grasslands outside the small town of Prague, Oklahoma. The shaking leveled 14 homes, shut down schools for repairs, and was felt across 17 states. It also troubled seismologists, who'd never expected an event so large to hit an area that was supposed to be seismically safe. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The largest-ever recorded quake in Oklahoma was caused by the injection of wastewater, a byproduct of oil extraction, into the ground, new research confirms. On Nov. 6, 2011, a series of earthquakes, including a 5.6-magnitude temblor, struck the rural town of Prague, about 37 miles (60 kilometers) east of Oklahoma City, crumbling homes in the area and damaging a federal highway. The quake could be felt as far away as Milwaukee. "We don't normally feel earthquakes, it was shocking," said study co-author Katie Keranen, a seismologist at Oklahoma University. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A new study in the journal Geology is the latest to tie a string of unusual earthquakes, in this case, in central Oklahoma, to the injection of wastewater deep underground. Researchers now say that the magnitude 5.7 earthquake near Prague, Okla., on Nov. 6, 2011, may also be the largest ever linked to wastewater injection. Felt as far away as Milwaukee, more than 800 miles away, the quake—the biggest ever recorded in Oklahoma--destroyed 14 homes, buckled a federal highway and left two people injured. Small earthquakes continue to be recorded in the area. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Homeowners, be aware! That fine print in your homeowner?s insurance policy could really matter if hydraulic fracturing damages your home sweet home. Fracking-related damage, insurance industry insiders say, is not covered under a standard homeowner?s insurance policy. Neither is damage caused by floods, earthquakes or earth movement, which insurers call exclusions. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Democratic state Sens. Cecilia Tkaczyk and Tony Avella put out a joint upstate-downstate statement on New York City officials? concerns that hydrofracking could disturb the series of aquifers that supply drinking water for the metropolis, even with the significant buffer zones that would protect the city?s watershed from the practice. They do not miss the opportunity to draw attention to Bloomberg News? report on state DEC?s study of the potential seismic effects of fracking, which was led by an expert who has done work for the drilling industry (and, as the story notes, for anti-fracking organizations as well). ... (See internet for the rest!)

... As the pace of oil and gas development increases in Colorado the controversy and impacts on our communities and public health have been well documented. However, one impact to Coloradans which not has received as much attention is how drilling and fracking has impacted Colorado?s real estate and the value of Coloradans? most significant investment and nest egg — our homes.? ? As a managing broker of 40 realtors on the Front Range, I hear from brokers of potential buyers balk at buying a home near a drilling or fracking site, even though that?s often where the discounted homes are. The reason these homes have reduced value is that they are so close to oil and gas activity. The flip side of that same coin is that there are homeowners struggling to sell their home near these sites because of low buyer interest. They often have to sell at significantly lower prices than when originally purchased due to the oil and gas industry neighbors. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Horizontal drilling combined with high-volume hydraulic fracturing and clustered multi-well pads are recently combined technologies for extracting oil and natural gas from shale bedrock. As this unconventional extraction method (collectively known as “fracking”) has pushed into more densely populated areas of the United States, and as fracking operations have increased in frequency and intensity, a significant body of evidence has emerged to demonstrate that these activities are inherently dangerous to people and their communities. Risks include adverse impacts on water, air, agriculture, public health and safety, property values, climate stability and economic vitality. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... National Casualty (Insurance) Company, part of the Nationwide group of insurance companies, has announced that hydraulic fracturing operations are prohibited in relation to properties it insures. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... ALBANY, N.Y. (AP) — Nationwide Mutual Insurance Co. has become the first major insurance company to say it won't cover damage related to a gas drilling process that blasts chemical-laden water deep into the ground. ... (See internet for the rest!)


... Extraction of hydrocarbon gas from tight shale formations using horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has been advertised as a path toward energy independence for the United States and is being promoted worldwide. This is tempered by environmental and societal concerns that have led to banning the practice in some countries (e.g., France), at least one state in the U.S. (Vermont), and numerous towns and cities in the United States. In the United States, the process itself is largely regulated at the state level, with exemptions from federal laws regulating air, drinking water and hazardous waste disposal. Regulation at the state level varies considerably among states with significant shale deposits, as does the level of enforcement of regulations. The argument often given to suggest that the process is safe cites the fact that in the sixty years since the first gas well was hydraulically fractured, the industry has not found proof it finds acceptable that drinking water has been contaminated. This assertion is not universally accepted because of at least two factors. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Fracking ? or hydraulic fracturing, in full ? is a recently-adopted extraction technique, which uses pressurized fluid to crack open impermeable materials deep underground, allowing gas or oil to escape. It has been linked with a magnitude 4.0 earthquake in Ohio last year, as well as several seismic incidents in Texas and Canada just this autumn. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... BOULDER—Life in the country isn't what it used to be in some parts of Colorado. Eighteen-wheelers kick up gravel at all hours of the day as they rumble down rural roads to drop off supplies at oil and gas extraction sites. Nearby homes sometimes shudder, as excess gases at the well pads are burned in a process called “flaring,” which creates a clamor similar to that of a jet engine. Scores of residents living in the wide-open and gas-rich plains east of Boulder complain noise, emissions and traffic are harming their quality of life and oil and gas exploration is despoiling the landscape. Industrialization has come to where city dwellers used to go to get away from it all. “If you would have talked to me two years ago, I wouldn't have known what unconventional oil and gas extraction was about. I've got quite an education over the last two years,” said Rod Brueske, who lives on a three-acre farm with his wife and two children in southeastern Boulder County. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... While disagreement abounds on this topic, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) say that oil production can cause earthquakes, but not the kind reported in the news. 2004 quake that triggered a deadly tsunami in Sumatra, occur at plate boundaries where hard, rocky slabs slide against each other to release tremendous amounts of energy. Oil generally is found in permeable sediments that are soft and squishy, not in hard rock. When this squishy land moves, it releases a small amount of energy, which can lead to a "mini-seismic event"—one that is barely detected on the Richter scale. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... IN a secluded spot here lies a vacationer?s dream: a three-bedroom ranch-style house with 14 acres of woods roamed by deer and turkey, just minutes from prime trout fishing on the Delaware River. The asking price is $107,000. But even at this “just reduced” bargain price, said Leonard Piorkowski, a local real estate agent, he can?t make a sale. “One hundred seven thousand for 14 acres and a house and two garages, and we can?t sell it?” Mr. Piorkowski lamented as he guided a visitor across the property recently. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Patricia Wallace, whose family has owned a house on the East Branch of the Delaware River near Hancock for generations, said fracking was a major reason she and her brother delayed replacing the 1,800-square-foot house where they spend their summers. The siblings had hired an architect in 2007 to design a new $500,000 structure within the footprint of the 240-year-old house, she said. But then the economy worsened and the gas companies began leasing land around them, as well as across the state line into Pennsylvania, where fracking got under way in earnest in 2008. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Significant earthquakes are increasingly occurring within the continental interior of the United States, including five of moment magnitude (Mw) = 5.0 in 2011 alone. Concurrently, the volume of fluid injected into the subsurface related to the production of unconventional resources continues to rise. Here we identify the largest earthquake potentially related to injection, an Mw 5.7 earthquake in November 2011 in Oklahoma. The earthquake was felt in at least 17 states and caused damage in the epicentral region. It occurred in a sequence, with 2 earthquakes of Mw 5.0 and a prolific sequence of aftershocks. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A spate of small earthquakes in B.C.'s remote northeastern corner were caused by a controversial technique used to extract natural gas from shale rock, says a report by the province's energy regulator. The B.C. Oil and Gas Commission launched its probe after a "number of anomalous, low-level seismic events" were detected in the Horn River Basin, a gas-rich shale formation that's attracted some of the industry's biggest players. "The investigation has concluded that the events observed within remote and isolated areas of the Horn River Basin between 2009 and 2011 were caused by fluid injection during hydraulic fracturing in proximity to pre-existing faults," the agency said in a recent report. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... This report provides the results of the BC Oil and Gas Commission?s (Commission) investigation into anomalous seismicity within geographically confined and remote areas in the Horn River Basin between April 2009 and December 2011. The investigation was commenced immediately after the Commission became aware of a number of anomalous, low-level seismic events which were recorded by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) near areas of oil and gas development. Only one of the events under investigation had been reported by NRCan as “felt” at the earth?s surface. ... ... (See internet for the rest!)


... You?ve probably heard the word “fracking” occasionally thrown around in the news over the past couple years. Fracking is shorthand for hydraulic fracturing and has become an increasingly popular process in which drills are used to crack shale rocks found underground in order to release the natural gas found inside them. Although fracking has been around for more than fifty years, the recent discovery of new shale in the northeastern portion of the United States has dramatically increased its occurrence. The process of fracking is considered controversial predominantly because of concerns that carcinogens from fracking can find their way into nearby drinking water. Some homeowners also claim that fracking can cause methane gas seeps and even instances of tap water igniting. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Homeowners and landowners living in fracking hotspots should know how a gas lease can impact their property value — and their mortgage. Fracking, or hydraulic fracturing, involves horizontal drilling to access hydrocarbon-bearing shale formations located thousands of feet beneath the earth. Fracturing technology stimulates the well by injecting fluids (usually water, sand and chemicals) at high pressure to break apart the rock and release the natural gas. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Most earthquakes in the Barnett Shale region of North Texas occur within a few miles of one or more injection wells used to dispose of wastes associated with petroleum production such as hydraulic fracturing fluids, according to new research from The University of Texas at Austin. None of the quakes identified in the two-year study were strong enough to pose a danger to the public. The study by Cliff Frohlich, senior research scientist at the university?s Institute for Geophysics, appears this week in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. "You can't prove that any one earthquake was caused by an injection well," says Frohlich. "But it's obvious that wells are enhancing the probability that earthquakes will occur." ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Earthquakes triggered by fluids injected deep underground, such as during the controversial practice of fracking, may be more common than previously thought, a new study suggests. Fluid injections into Earth are not uncommon. For instance, in hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, water, sand and other materials are injected under high pressure into a well to fracture rock, opening fissures that help natural gas flow out more freely. Fluid-injection operations are also used to help get power from geothermal energy, and to dispose of waste. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The leaked internal memo, indicating that Nationwide Mutual Insurance Co. had determined risks from the controversial process of hydraulic fracturing were too great to provide coverage for, was interpreted by some as vindication of their concerns and by others as ill-informed betrayal. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... From an underwriting standpoint, we do not have a comfort level with the unique risks associated with the fracking process to provide coverage at a reasonable price. Insurance is a contract and it is designed to cover certain risks. Risks like natural gas and oil drilling are not part of our contracts, and this is common across the industry. Our longstanding underwriting guideline is that we do not insure the oil and gas business. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... ALBANY, N.Y.(AP) — Nationwide Mutual Insurance Co. has become the first major insurance company to say it won't cover damage related to a gas drilling process that blasts chemical-laden water deep into the ground. The Columbus, Ohio-based company's personal and commercial policies "were not designed to cover" risk from the drilling process, called hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, Nationwide spokeswoman Nancy Smeltzer said Thursday. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Earthquakes triggered by fluids injected deep underground, such as during the controversial practice of fracking, may be more common than previously thought, a new study suggests. Fluid injections into Earth are not uncommon. For instance, in hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, water, sand and other materials are injected under high pressure into a well to fracture rock, opening fissures that help natural gas flow out more freely. Fluid-injection operations are also used to help get power from geothermal energy, and to dispose of waste. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Over the past several decades, U.S. industries have injected more than 30 trillion gallons of toxic liquid deep into the earth, using broad expanses of the nation's geology as an invisible dumping ground. No company would be allowed to pour such dangerous chemicals into the rivers or onto the soil. But until recently, scientists and environmental officials have assumed that deep layers of rock beneath the earth would safely entomb the waste for millennia. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... WASHINGTON (AP) — The controversial practice of hydraulic fracturing to extract natural gas does not pose a high risk for triggering earthquakes large enough to feel, but other types of energy-related drilling can make the ground noticeably shake, a major government science report concludes. Even those man-made tremors large enough to be an issue are very rare, says a special report by the National Research Council. In more than 90 years of monitoring, human activity has been shown to trigger only 154 quakes, most of them moderate or small, and only 60 of them in the United States. That's compared to a global average of about 14,450 earthquakes of magnitude 4.0 or greater every year, said the report, released Friday. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A study by Florich, finding that “the most significant result of this investigation is that all of the better-located epicenters were situated within a few kilometers of one or more injection wells. It is possible that some of these earthquakes have a natural origin, but it is implausible that all are natural.” ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The drilling goes on day and night at a new Marcellus Shale well in Daisytown, Washington County, and Brian Smith told Channel 4 Action News investigator Jim Parsons that he has no complaints -- except one. "As far as drilling and the noise and the lights in the window? No," he said. "But when it affected the value of my home? Absolutely." The Smiths live across the street from the new gas well. They applied for a new mortgage on their $230,000 home and hobby farm, and Quicken Loans congratulated them on their conditional approval. "They said all the paperwork will be done by the end of the week and we'll be able to close," Brian Smith said. "Somewhere in there, they called us and said, 'Your loan got denied.' " ... (See internet for the rest!)

... This study found that a large earthquake was likely linked to oil and gas production. “We conclude it is plausible, although not proven definitively, that production in the Stratton field contributed to the occurrence of the 2010 Alice earthquake and an earlier similar earthquake that occurred on 24 March 1997,” the report states. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... SAN DIEGO — On the night of Nov. 5, 2011, as midnight approached, a magnitude-5.6 earthquake rocked central Oklahoma, the state's most powerful quake ever recorded. The shaking injured two people, destroyed 14 homes, and bent a local stretch of highway. Research presented here at the annual meeting of the Seismological Society of America today (April 18) suggests the quake could be related to an industrial practice of injecting fluids deep into the Earth. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... There are plenty of reasons to worry about fracking—groundwater contamination, methane leaks, that flaming tap water thing. But can it really cause earthquakes? That's the question the US Geological Survey set out to answer after a spate of tremors in the Midwest—an area not usually known for earthquakes—alerted scientists to the possibility that some of them might be man-made. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The increasingly common practice of disposing of oil and gas drilling wastewater by injecting it underground can trigger earthquakes, according to federal scientists who studied quakes since 1970 in Colorado and neighboring states. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) team has found that a sharp jump in earthquakes in America?s heartland appears to be linked to oil and natural gas drilling operations. As hydraulic fracturing has exploded onto the scene, it has increasingly been connected to earthquakes. Some quakes may be caused by the original fracking — that is, by injecting a fluid mixture into the earth to release natural gas (or oil). More appear to be caused by reinjecting the resulting brine deep underground. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The Department of Agriculture is considering requiring an extensive environmental review before issuing mortgages to people who have leased their land for oil and gas drilling. Last year more than 140,000 families, many of them with low incomes and living in rural areas, received roughly $18 billion in loans or loan guarantees from the department under the Rural Housing Service program. Much of the money went to residents in states that have seen the biggest growth in drilling in recent years, including Pennsylvania, Texas and Louisiana. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The New Year?s Eve earthquake that shook Youngstown, Ohio measured 4.0 on the Richter scale. The temblor was the largest of a series of quakes that had been rocking the area around Youngstown for several months and are?blamed on a deep injection well. No fracking happens at deep injection wells. But fracking wastewater is sent down those wells at high pressure as a method of disposal. Researchers at Columbia University?s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory have studied the earthquakes in Ohio and identified the deep well they think caused the quake. The Youngstown well went into a sandstone formation, and then 300 feet further into more solid rock. John Armbruster, a seismologist with Lamont-Doherty, says the sandstone in that area is not very porous. “The sandstone doesn?t want to accept this waste very easily,” says Armbruster. “So you have to use a lot of pressure to force the waste into the sandstone.” When that pressurized fluid came in contact with a fault, the earth started to shake. Armbruster says it?s unlikely that the sandstone itself would have triggered a quake. But he says the Youngstown well was sunk deeper, into harder rock layers, where earthquakes were waiting to happen. “The energy needs to be there,” says Armbruster. In other words, it?s not just pumping large amounts of fluid down a hole into the earth. That fluid has to awaken a sleeping fault. Armbruster says it?s hard to know where those faults lie. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... On the heels of an announcement by the Ohio Division of Natural Resources (ODNR), as reported in The Vindicator on Dec. 30, that ordered D&L Energy Inc to cease operations at a nearby brine-injection well—a storage site for toxic fracking wastewater—due to ten earthquakes since March 17 in close proximity to the well site in Youngstown, Ohio, another earthquake on Dec. 31 at 3:05 p.m., this one an unprecedented magnitude 4.0 recorded by the U.S. Geologic Society, was reported. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Following seismic tremors in North-West England this Spring, the firm exploring for natural shale gas in the region has admitted that the disturbances were caused by the controversial exploration process of fracking. Fracking involves cracking or fracturing rock, containing trapped shale gas, by using pressurized liquid. Shale gas is an increasingly important energy resource though there have been claims that it is worse for the environment than coal, largely due to the fracking process. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Over the past decades, experience gained from mapping hundreds of hydraulic fracture treatments withdownhole geophones has shown that seismic events induced by these fracture treatments normally have amagnitude much lower than 0 on the Richter scale. That is the reason for using downhole receivers, sincethese events are hard to detect at the surface. Stronger events occur when some of the fluid penetrates intofaults and in rare cases, events with magnitude up to 0.8 ML have been detected. Another observation is thatinjection volume has an influence on micro-seismic magnitude: larger injected fluid volumes tend to yieldstronger events. However, even mapping of many treatments in US shale plays has only shown events up to0.8 ML for a treatment volume of 15,000 bbls (N.R. Warpinski, private communication). There are only twodocumented cases of a hydro-frac treatment causing events up to magnitude 1.9 ML and 2.8 MD, respectively (from massive hydro-frac treatments in Oklahoma; Luza and Lawson, 1990; Holland, 2011). ... (See internet for the rest!)

... As natural gas drilling has spread across the country, energy industry representatives have sat down at kitchen tables in states like Texas, Pennsylvania and New York to offer homeowners leases that give companies the right to drill on their land. And over the past 10 years, as natural gas has become increasingly important to the nation?s energy future, Americans have signed more than a million of these leases. But bankers and real estate executives, especially in New York, are starting to pay closer attention to the fine print and are raising provocative questions, such as: What happens if they lend money for a piece of land that ends up storing the equivalent of an Olympic-size swimming pool filled with toxic wastewater from drilling? Fearful of just such a possibility, some banks have become reluctant to grant mortgages on properties leased for gas drilling. At least eight local or national banks do not typically issue mortgages on such properties, lenders say. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... When it comes to oil and gas news, it's hard to beat 'fracking' for a more buzz-worthy topic. Add 'hydrogen sulfide gas' to the headline, though, and and expect eyebrows to rise. A Sunday report in the Glenwood Springs Post Independent presented evidence the toxic gas, which can cause severe respiratory distress and death, has been documented in various concentrations at oil and gas drilling sites in Colorado. Exposure to the gas at low concentrations can cause headache, dizziness, and upset stomach. At higher concentrations, gas inhalation triggers unconsciousness and death through respiratory paralysis. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... On January 18 2011 The Oklahoma Geological Survey (OGS) received a phone call from a resident living south of Elmore City, in Garvin County, Oklahoma, that reported feeling several earthquakes throughout the night. The reporting local resident had also offered that there was an active hydraulic fracturing project occurring nearby. Upon examination there were nearly 50 earthquakes, which occurred during that time. After analyzing the data there were 43 earthquakes large enough to be located, which from the character of the seismic recordings indicate that they are both shallow and unique. The earthquakes range in magnitude from 1.0 to 2.8 Md and the majority of earthquakes occurred within about 24 hours of the first earthquake. ... (See internet for the rest!)


... Last Congress, the Committee on Energy and Commerce launched an investigation to examine the practice of hydraulic fracturing in the United States. As part of that inquiry, the Committee asked the 14 leading oil and gas service companies to disclose the types and volumes of the hydraulic fracturing products they used in their fluids between 2005 and 2009 and the chemical contents of those products. This report summarizes the information provided to the Committee. Between 2005 and 2009, the 14 oil and gas service companies used more than 2,500 hydraulic fracturing products containing 750 chemicals and other components. Overall, these companies used 780 million gallons of hydraulic fracturing products ? not including water added at the well site ? between 2005 and 2009. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... LITTLE ROCK, Ark. — The number and strength of earthquakes in central Arkansas have noticeably dropped since the shutdown of two injection wells in the area, although a state researcher says it's too early to draw any conclusions. "We have definitely noticed a reduction in the number of earthquakes, especially the larger ones," said Scott Ausbrooks, geohazards supervisor for the Arkansas Geological Survey. "It's definitely worth noting." ... (See internet for the rest!)

... LITTLE ROCK, Ark. — Two natural gas companies agreed Friday to temporarily cease operations of injection wells in an area of central Arkansas that has seen more than 800 earthquakes during the past six months. Oklahoma City-based Chesapeake Energy and Clarita Operating of Little Rock said they would comply with the Arkansas Oil and Gas Commission's emergency request to stop all injection activities in Greenbrier- and Guy-area wells used to dispose of wastewater from production. The panel's next regular meeting is March 29. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... LITTLE ROCK, Ark. — Two natural gas companies agreed Friday to temporarily cease operations of injection wells in an area of central Arkansas that has seen more than 800 earthquakes during the past six months. Oklahoma City-based Chesapeake Energy and Clarita Operating of Little Rock said they would comply with the Arkansas Oil and Gas Commission's emergency request to stop all injection activities in Greenbrier- and Guy-area wells used to dispose of wastewater from production. The panel's next regular meeting is March 29. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... LITTLE ROCK, Ark. — Two more small earthquakes have been recorded in central Arkansas where a recent spate of tremors has officials considering shutting down two gas-drilling wells. No injuries or damage are reported. The U.S. Geological Survey recorded Thursday morning earthquakes with preliminary magnitudes of 3.7 and 3.2. Both quakes were just northeast of Greenbrier, which is about 35 miles north of Little Rock. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The injection deep into the earth of wastewater from natural gas mining may have spurred a series of small earthquakes in Texas, according to a new study. Between Oct. 30, 2008, and May 31, 2009, more than 180 minor tremors were recorded near the Dallas-Fort Worth airport, an area unaccustomed to shaky ground. The quaking commenced shortly after the opening of a local disposal well for the liquid byproducts of natural gas mining mostly brine, or saltwater. "When these earthquakes first occurred we had no idea if they were tectonic or if they were human-induced," said Cliff Frohlich, a geophysicist at The University of Texas at Austin. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... LITTLE ROCK, Ark. — Jim Sutterfield was briefly puzzled by a thumping sound that seemed to slam the back of his office chair. But when the small-town Arkansas fire chief turned and saw no one was around, he quickly realized it was just an earthquake ? again. "That was only my second time to feel one, but others here have felt them for three or four months now," the Greenbrier chief said after feeling a tremor this week. "Now when it happens, people say, 'Well, there's another one.'" Several small earthquakes ranging in magnitude from 1.8 to 3.8 have rattled the north-central Arkansas cities of Greenbrier and Guy this week, and the cause is unknown. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... This past weekend in Seattle, rumblings that registered as magnitude 1 or 2 marked the first time on record that football fans have triggered seismic activity . Tremors also can be spurred by drilling for oil , United States Geological Survey seismologists told Life's Little Mysteries last year, by causing rocks to shift into voids left behind by the extracted fluid. Minor vibrations aside, the question remains: Can humans cause full-blown earthquakes? And, if so, how? ... (See internet for the rest!)

... DECATUR - One year to the day after a company set up its drilling rigs on their land in eastern Wise County, Tim and Christine Ruggiero confirmed the depth of their loss. Originally on the 2010 tax rolls for $257,330, their home and 10-acre horse property are now worth $75,240. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A 2010?study of the Texas real estate market??in the heavily drilled suburban-Dallas area near Flower Mound concluded that homes valued at more than $250,000 and within 1,000 feet of a drilling pad or well site saw values decrease by three to 14 percent. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... The eruption demonstrates that mud volcanoes can be initiated by fracture propagation through significant thicknesses of overburden and shows that the mud and fluid need not have previously coexisted, but can be “mixed” within unlithified sedimentary strata ... It is very likely that Lusi was initiated as a result of access by a high-pressure aquifer at depths in the region of 2.5?2.8 km through an open-hole section of the Bajar Panji-1 well to depths at which fractures could be initiated. Lusi indicates that mud volcanoes can be initiated by fracture propagation from multi-kilometer depths, which triggers fluid flow and the rapid establishment of a subterranean mixing system, into which water is transported from deeper successions. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... ABSTRACT: This paper examines the impact of oil and gas facilities on rural residential property values using data from central Alberta, Canada. The influences are evaluated using two groups of variables characterizing hazard effects and amenity effects. A spatial error model was employed to capture the spatial dependence between neighbouring properties. The results show that property values are negatively correlated with the number of sour gas wells and flaring oil batteries within 4km of the property. Indices reflecting potential health hazards associated with rates of S release (based on information from Emergency Response Plans and Zones) also have a significant negative association with property prices. The findings suggest that oil and sour gas facilities located within 4 km of rural residential properties significantly affect their sale price. ... (See internet for the rest!)


... As defined by the EPA, an injection well is a device that places fluid deep underground into porous rock formations, such as sandstone or limestone, or into or below the shallow soil layer. These fluids may be water, wastewater, brine (salt water), or water mixed with chemicals. As of 2012, there are more than 680,000 underground waste and injection wells nationwide, and U.S. industries have injected more than 30 trillion gallons of toxic liquid deep into injection wells over the past several decades, according to ProPublica. Injection wells have a range of uses that include CO2 storage, waste disposal, enhancing oil production, mining, and preventing salt water intrusion. Widespread use of injection wells began in the 1930s to dispose of brine generated during oil production. In the 1950s, chemical companies began injecting industrial wastes into deep wells. By the 1990s, injection wells were used to dispose of fracking wastewater. They are also planned for carbon capture and storage. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... A REPORT PUBLISHED BY DECC that includes a BGS co-author concludes that the earthquakes near Blackpool in April and May 2011 were induced by hydraulic fracture treatments at the Preese Hall well (PH1), operated by CUADRILLA RESOURCES LTD. The report also concludes that further small earthquakes cannot be ruled out, however the risk from these earthquakes is low, and structural damage is extremely unlikely. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Recent studies have found that glycol ethers, toluene, and several other well-established chemicals known to cause birth defects and miscarriages are prominent in the gas extraction process known as fracking. This law firm has been litigating cases involving exposures to the same toxic chemicals on behalf of children with birth injuries whose parents were working in semiconductor manufacturing and other industries. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... In some parts of the country, methane levels high enough to set water on fire are raising serious concerns for homeowners about the dangers and insurance consequences of hydraulic fracturing, commonly known as "fracking." In?fracking?, natural gas drillers force sand, dozens of chemicals (some toxic) and water into shale to fracture and release the gas. This process occurs about 5,000 to 8,000 feet below the surface. Hot spots for this procedure include Louisiana, Pennsylvania and Texas. ... (See internet for the rest!)

... As previously noted, chemicals perform many functions in a hydraulic fracturing job. Although there are dozens to hundreds of chemicals which could be used as additives, there are a limited number which are routinely used in hydraulic fracturing. The following is a list of the chemicals used most often. This chart is sorted alphabetically by the Product Function to make it easier for you to compare to the fracturing records . ... (See internet for the rest!)

... Within the central and eastern United States, the number of earthquakes has increased dramatically over the past few years. More than 300 earthquakes above a magnitude 3.0 occurred in the three years from 2010?2012, compared with an average rate of 21 events per year observed from 1967?2000. These earthquakes are fairly small — large enough to have been felt by many people, yet small enough to rarely have caused damage. ... (See internet for the rest!)

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